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===Saturn IB===
 
===Saturn IB===
 
[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Apollo_7_launch.jpg][http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Apollo_7_launch.jpg] A [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saturn_IB Saturn IB] rocket launches [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_7 Apollo 7], October 11, 1968.Main article: [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saturn_IB Saturn IB] The [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saturn_IB Saturn IB] was an upgraded version of the earlier [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saturn_I Saturn I] rocket, which was used in early Apollo [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boilerplate_%28spaceflight%29 boilerplate] launches. It consisted of:
 
[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Apollo_7_launch.jpg][http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Apollo_7_launch.jpg] A [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saturn_IB Saturn IB] rocket launches [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_7 Apollo 7], October 11, 1968.Main article: [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saturn_IB Saturn IB] The [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saturn_IB Saturn IB] was an upgraded version of the earlier [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saturn_I Saturn I] rocket, which was used in early Apollo [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boilerplate_%28spaceflight%29 boilerplate] launches. It consisted of:
*An [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/S-IB S-IB] first stage powered by eight [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/H-1_%28rocket_engine%29 H-1] engines burning [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RP-1 RP-1] with [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LOX LOX] oxidizer, to produce 1,600,000 pounds-force (7,100 kN) of thrust;
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*An [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/S-IB S-IB] first stage powered by eight [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/H-1_%28rocket_engine%29 H-1] engines burning [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RP-1 RP-1] with [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LOX LOX] oxidizer, to produce 1,600,000 pounds-force (7,100 kN) of thrust;
 
*An [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/S-IVB S-IVB-200] second stage, powered by one [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/J-2_%28rocket_engine%29 J-2] engine burning [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liquid_hydrogen liquid hydrogen] with [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LOX LOX] oxidizer, to produce 225,000 [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pound-force lbf] (1,000 [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Newton_%28unit%29 kN]) of thrust; and
 
*An [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/S-IVB S-IVB-200] second stage, powered by one [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/J-2_%28rocket_engine%29 J-2] engine burning [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liquid_hydrogen liquid hydrogen] with [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LOX LOX] oxidizer, to produce 225,000 [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pound-force lbf] (1,000 [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Newton_%28unit%29 kN]) of thrust; and
 
*An [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saturn_V_Instrument_Unit Instrument Unit] which contained the rocket's guidance system.
 
*An [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saturn_V_Instrument_Unit Instrument Unit] which contained the rocket's guidance system.
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[[File:SaturnV.jpg|thumb|left|Saturn V Rocket being launched the final time to Skylab]]
 
[[File:SaturnV.jpg|thumb|left|Saturn V Rocket being launched the final time to Skylab]]
 
[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Ksc-69pc-442.jpg][http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Ksc-69pc-442.jpg] A [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saturn_V Saturn V] [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saturn_%28rocket_family%29 rocket] launches Apollo 11 in 1969The [[Saturn V]] was a three-stage rocket consisting of:
 
[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Ksc-69pc-442.jpg][http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Ksc-69pc-442.jpg] A [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saturn_V Saturn V] [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Saturn_%28rocket_family%29 rocket] launches Apollo 11 in 1969The [[Saturn V]] was a three-stage rocket consisting of:
*An [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/S-IC S-IC] first stage, powered by five [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/F-1_%28rocket_engine%29 F-1] engines arranged in a cross pattern, burning [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RP-1 RP-1] with [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LOX LOX] oxidizer to produce 7,500,000&nbsp;lbf (33,000&nbsp;kN) of thrust. They burned for 2.5 minutes, accelerating the spacecraft to a speed of approximately 6,000 miles per hour (2.68&nbsp;km/s).<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-25">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_note-25 &#91;26&#93;]</sup>
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*An [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/S-IC S-IC] first stage, powered by five [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/F-1_%28rocket_engine%29 F-1] engines arranged in a cross pattern, burning [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/RP-1 RP-1] with [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/LOX LOX] oxidizer to produce 7,500,000 lbf (33,000 kN) of thrust. They burned for 2.5 minutes, accelerating the spacecraft to a speed of approximately 6,000 miles per hour (2.68 km/s).<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-25">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_note-25 &#91;26&#93;]</sup>
*An [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/S-II S-II] second stage, powered by five of the J-2 engines used in the S-IVB. They burned for approximately six minutes, taking the spacecraft to a speed of 15,300 miles per hour (6.84&nbsp;km/s) and an altitude of about <span style="white-space: nowrap;">115 miles (185&nbsp;km)</span>.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-26">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_note-26 &#91;27&#93;]</sup>
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*An [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/S-II S-II] second stage, powered by five of the J-2 engines used in the S-IVB. They burned for approximately six minutes, taking the spacecraft to a speed of 15,300 miles per hour (6.84 km/s) and an altitude of about <span style="white-space: nowrap;">115 miles (185 km)</span>.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-26">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_note-26 &#91;27&#93;]</sup>
 
*An [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/S-IVB S-IVB-500] third stage similar to the Saturn IB's second stage, with capability to restart the J-2 engine. The engine would burn for approximately two and a half minutes and shut down when a low-Earth parking orbit was achieved. After approximately two orbits to confirm the spacecraft was ready to commit to the lunar trip, the engine was restarted to make the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trans_lunar_injection translunar injection] maneuver taking the spacecraft into an extremely high orbit where it would be captured by the Moon's gravity.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-27">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_note-27 &#91;28&#93;]</sup>
 
*An [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/S-IVB S-IVB-500] third stage similar to the Saturn IB's second stage, with capability to restart the J-2 engine. The engine would burn for approximately two and a half minutes and shut down when a low-Earth parking orbit was achieved. After approximately two orbits to confirm the spacecraft was ready to commit to the lunar trip, the engine was restarted to make the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trans_lunar_injection translunar injection] maneuver taking the spacecraft into an extremely high orbit where it would be captured by the Moon's gravity.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-27">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_note-27 &#91;28&#93;]</sup>
 
*An instrument unit with a guidance system similar to that used on the Saturn IB.
 
*An instrument unit with a guidance system similar to that used on the Saturn IB.
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The only unmanned missions to be publicly designated as "Apollo" followed by a sequence number were Apollo 4, Apollo 5 and Apollo 6.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-28">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_note-28 &#91;29&#93;]</sup> The simple numbering was started at "4" to follow the three Apollo-Saturn IB flights, though all subsequent flights kept the "AS" designations: AS-204 and following for Saturn IB flights, and AS-501 and following for Saturn V flights.
 
The only unmanned missions to be publicly designated as "Apollo" followed by a sequence number were Apollo 4, Apollo 5 and Apollo 6.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-28">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_note-28 &#91;29&#93;]</sup> The simple numbering was started at "4" to follow the three Apollo-Saturn IB flights, though all subsequent flights kept the "AS" designations: AS-204 and following for Saturn IB flights, and AS-501 and following for Saturn V flights.
   
[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_4 Apollo 4] was the first unmanned test flight of the Saturn V launch vehicle, carrying a Command/Service Module (CSM). Launched on November 9, 1967, Apollo 4 exemplified [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Mueller_%28NASA%29 George Mueller]'s strategy of "all up" testing. Rather than being tested stage by stage, as most rockets were, the Saturn V would be flown for the first time as one unit. [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Walter_Cronkite Walter Cronkite] covered the launch from a broadcast booth about 4 miles (6&nbsp;km) from the launch site. The extreme noise and [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vibrations vibrations] from the launch nearly shook the broadcast booth apart- ceiling tiles fell and windows shook. At one point, Cronkite was forced to dampen the booth's plate glass window to prevent it from shattering.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-29">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_note-29 &#91;30&#93;]</sup> This launch showed that additional protective measures were necessary to protect structures in the immediate vicinity. Future launches used a damping mechanism directly at the launchpad which proved effective in limiting the generated noise. The mission was a highly successful one, demonstrating the capability of the Command Module's heat shield to survive a trans-lunar return reentry by using the Service Module engine to ram it into the atmosphere at higher than the usual earth-orbital reentry speed.
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[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_4 Apollo 4] was the first unmanned test flight of the Saturn V launch vehicle, carrying a Command/Service Module (CSM). Launched on November 9, 1967, Apollo 4 exemplified [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Mueller_%28NASA%29 George Mueller]'s strategy of "all up" testing. Rather than being tested stage by stage, as most rockets were, the Saturn V would be flown for the first time as one unit. [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Walter_Cronkite Walter Cronkite] covered the launch from a broadcast booth about 4 miles (6 km) from the launch site. The extreme noise and [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vibrations vibrations] from the launch nearly shook the broadcast booth apart- ceiling tiles fell and windows shook. At one point, Cronkite was forced to dampen the booth's plate glass window to prevent it from shattering.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-29">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_note-29 &#91;30&#93;]</sup> This launch showed that additional protective measures were necessary to protect structures in the immediate vicinity. Future launches used a damping mechanism directly at the launchpad which proved effective in limiting the generated noise. The mission was a highly successful one, demonstrating the capability of the Command Module's heat shield to survive a trans-lunar return reentry by using the Service Module engine to ram it into the atmosphere at higher than the usual earth-orbital reentry speed.
   
 
[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_5 Apollo 5] was the first unmanned test flight of the Lunar Module (LM) in Earth orbit, launched on January 22, 1968, by a Saturn IB. The critical LM engines were successfully tested (though a computer programming error cut one test firing short), including an in-flight test of the second stage engine in "abort mode," in which the ascent engine is fired simultaneously with the jettison of the descent stage. This capability was made available, only to be used in the event of a critical problem on the Moon landing, such as running out of descent fuel, but was never needed.
 
[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_5 Apollo 5] was the first unmanned test flight of the Lunar Module (LM) in Earth orbit, launched on January 22, 1968, by a Saturn IB. The critical LM engines were successfully tested (though a computer programming error cut one test firing short), including an in-flight test of the second stage engine in "abort mode," in which the ascent engine is fired simultaneously with the jettison of the descent stage. This capability was made available, only to be used in the event of a critical problem on the Moon landing, such as running out of descent fuel, but was never needed.
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[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_7 Apollo 7], launched on October 11, 1968, was the first manned mission in the program. It was an 11-day Earth-orbital flight intended to test the Command Module, redesigned following the Apollo 1 fire. It was the first manned launch of the Saturn IB launch vehicle and the first three-man American space mission.
 
[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_7 Apollo 7], launched on October 11, 1968, was the first manned mission in the program. It was an 11-day Earth-orbital flight intended to test the Command Module, redesigned following the Apollo 1 fire. It was the first manned launch of the Saturn IB launch vehicle and the first three-man American space mission.
 
[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Apollo_15_Lunar_Rover_and_Irwin.jpg][http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Apollo_15_Lunar_Rover_and_Irwin.jpg] Lunar Roving Vehicle used on Apollos 15–17Between December 21, 1968 and May 18, 1969, NASA planned to launch three manned test / practice missions using the Saturn V launch vehicle and the complete spacecraft including the LM. But by the summer of 1968 it became clear to program managers that a fully functional LM would not be available for the Apollo 8 launch. Rather than waste the Saturn V on another simple Earth-orbiting mission, they chose to send the crew planned to make the second orbital LM test in Apollo 9, to orbit the Moon in the CSM on [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_8 Apollo 8] during Christmas. The original idea for this switch was the brainchild of [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Low George Low], Manager of the Apollo Spacecraft Program Office. Although it has often been claimed that this change was made as a direct response to Soviet attempts to fly a piloted [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zond_program Zond] spacecraft around the Moon, there is no evidence that this was the case. NASA officials were aware of the Soviet Zond flights, but the timing of the Zond missions does not correspond well with the extensive written record from NASA about the Apollo 8 decision. The Apollo 8 decision was primarily based upon the LM schedule, not fear of the Soviets beating the Americans to the Moon.
 
[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Apollo_15_Lunar_Rover_and_Irwin.jpg][http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Apollo_15_Lunar_Rover_and_Irwin.jpg] Lunar Roving Vehicle used on Apollos 15–17Between December 21, 1968 and May 18, 1969, NASA planned to launch three manned test / practice missions using the Saturn V launch vehicle and the complete spacecraft including the LM. But by the summer of 1968 it became clear to program managers that a fully functional LM would not be available for the Apollo 8 launch. Rather than waste the Saturn V on another simple Earth-orbiting mission, they chose to send the crew planned to make the second orbital LM test in Apollo 9, to orbit the Moon in the CSM on [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_8 Apollo 8] during Christmas. The original idea for this switch was the brainchild of [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/George_Low George Low], Manager of the Apollo Spacecraft Program Office. Although it has often been claimed that this change was made as a direct response to Soviet attempts to fly a piloted [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zond_program Zond] spacecraft around the Moon, there is no evidence that this was the case. NASA officials were aware of the Soviet Zond flights, but the timing of the Zond missions does not correspond well with the extensive written record from NASA about the Apollo 8 decision. The Apollo 8 decision was primarily based upon the LM schedule, not fear of the Soviets beating the Americans to the Moon.
[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Apollo17_plaque.jpg][http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Apollo17_plaque.jpg] Plaque left on the Moon by [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_17 Apollo 17] This was followed by the first orbital manned LM flight on [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_9 Apollo 9] (with the original Apollo 8 crew), and the lunar "dress rehearsal" [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_10 Apollo 10] which took the LM to within 50,000 feet (15&nbsp;km) of the surface, but did not land.
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[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Apollo17_plaque.jpg][http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Apollo17_plaque.jpg] Plaque left on the Moon by [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_17 Apollo 17] This was followed by the first orbital manned LM flight on [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_9 Apollo 9] (with the original Apollo 8 crew), and the lunar "dress rehearsal" [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_10 Apollo 10] which took the LM to within 50,000 feet (15 km) of the surface, but did not land.
 
That's one small step for [a] man, one giant leap for mankind.
 
That's one small step for [a] man, one giant leap for mankind.
   
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Forty-one astronauts were assigned to fly Apollo spacecraft; thirty-two of them were part of the Apollo program, with the rest not flying until the subsequent Skylab and Apollo-Soyuz programs. Twenty-four of the Apollo program astronauts left Earth’s orbit and flew around the Moon (Apollo 7 and Apollo 9 did not leave low Earth orbit).
 
Forty-one astronauts were assigned to fly Apollo spacecraft; thirty-two of them were part of the Apollo program, with the rest not flying until the subsequent Skylab and Apollo-Soyuz programs. Twenty-four of the Apollo program astronauts left Earth’s orbit and flew around the Moon (Apollo 7 and Apollo 9 did not leave low Earth orbit).
   
Twelve of these astronauts walked on the Moon’s surface, and six of those drove a lunar rover on the Moon. While three astronauts flew to the Moon twice, none of them landed on the Moon more than once. The nine Apollo missions to the moon occurred between December 1968 and December 1972.
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Twelve of these astronauts walked on the Moon’s surface, and six of those drove a lunar rover on the Moon. While three astronauts flew to the Moon twice, none of them landed on the Moon more than once. The nine Apollo missions to the moon occurred between December of 1968 and December of 1972.
   
 
Apart from these twenty-four people who visited the Moon, no human being has gone beyond low Earth orbit. They have, therefore, been farther from the Earth than anyone else. They are also the only people to have directly viewed the far side of the Moon. The twelve who walked on the Moon are the only people ever to have set foot on an astronomical object other than the Earth. Of the twenty-four lunar astronauts taking part in the Moon missions, two went on to command a Skylab mission, one commanded Apollo-Soyuz, one flew as commander for shuttle approach and landing tests and two went on to command orbital shuttle missions. A total of twenty-four Apollo-era astronauts (as well as pre-Apollo astronaut John Glenn) flew the space shuttle.
 
Apart from these twenty-four people who visited the Moon, no human being has gone beyond low Earth orbit. They have, therefore, been farther from the Earth than anyone else. They are also the only people to have directly viewed the far side of the Moon. The twelve who walked on the Moon are the only people ever to have set foot on an astronomical object other than the Earth. Of the twenty-four lunar astronauts taking part in the Moon missions, two went on to command a Skylab mission, one commanded Apollo-Soyuz, one flew as commander for shuttle approach and landing tests and two went on to command orbital shuttle missions. A total of twenty-four Apollo-era astronauts (as well as pre-Apollo astronaut John Glenn) flew the space shuttle.
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| style="padding: 0pt; margin: 0pt; border: 0pt none;"|Ferroan [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anorthosite Anorthosite] Moon rock, returned from [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_16 Apollo 16].
 
| style="padding: 0pt; margin: 0pt; border: 0pt none;"|Ferroan [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anorthosite Anorthosite] Moon rock, returned from [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_16 Apollo 16].
 
|}
 
|}
The Apollo program returned 841.5&nbsp;lb (381.7&nbsp;kg) of [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moon_rocks rocks and other material from the Moon], much of which is stored at the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lunar_Receiving_Laboratory Lunar Receiving Laboratory] in Houston. The only sources of Moon rocks on Earth are those collected from the Apollo program, the former Soviet Union's [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Luna_programme Luna missions], and [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lunar_meteorites lunar meteorites].
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The Apollo program returned 841.5 lb (381.7 kg) of [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moon_rocks rocks and other material from the Moon], much of which is stored at the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lunar_Receiving_Laboratory Lunar Receiving Laboratory] in Houston. The only sources of Moon rocks on Earth are those collected from the Apollo program, the former Soviet Union's [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Luna_programme Luna missions], and [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lunar_meteorites lunar meteorites].
   
 
The rocks collected from the Moon are extremely old compared to rocks found on Earth, as measured by [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radiometric_dating radiometric dating] techniques. They range in age from about 3.2 billion years old for the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Basalt basaltic] samples derived from the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lunar_mare lunar mare], to about 4.6 billion years for samples derived from the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lunar_highlands highlands] crust.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-31">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_note-31 &#91;32&#93;]</sup> As such, they represent samples from a very early period in the development of the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_System Solar System] that is largely missing from Earth. One important rock found during the Apollo Program was the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genesis_Rock Genesis Rock], retrieved by astronauts [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Irwin James Irwin] and [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_Scott David Scott] during the Apollo 15 mission. This rock, called [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anorthosite anorthosite], is composed almost exclusively of the calcium-rich feldspar mineral [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anorthite anorthite], and is believed to be representative of the highland crust. A geochemical component called [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/KREEP KREEP] was discovered that has no known terrestrial counterpart. Together, KREEP and the anorthositic samples have been used to infer that the outer portion of the Moon was once completely molten (see [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lunar_magma_ocean lunar magma ocean]).
 
The rocks collected from the Moon are extremely old compared to rocks found on Earth, as measured by [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Radiometric_dating radiometric dating] techniques. They range in age from about 3.2 billion years old for the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Basalt basaltic] samples derived from the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lunar_mare lunar mare], to about 4.6 billion years for samples derived from the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lunar_highlands highlands] crust.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-31">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_note-31 &#91;32&#93;]</sup> As such, they represent samples from a very early period in the development of the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solar_System Solar System] that is largely missing from Earth. One important rock found during the Apollo Program was the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genesis_Rock Genesis Rock], retrieved by astronauts [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Irwin James Irwin] and [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/David_Scott David Scott] during the Apollo 15 mission. This rock, called [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anorthosite anorthosite], is composed almost exclusively of the calcium-rich feldspar mineral [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Anorthite anorthite], and is believed to be representative of the highland crust. A geochemical component called [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/KREEP KREEP] was discovered that has no known terrestrial counterpart. Together, KREEP and the anorthositic samples have been used to infer that the outer portion of the Moon was once completely molten (see [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lunar_magma_ocean lunar magma ocean]).
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The Apollo-Soyuz Test Project involved a docking in Earth orbit between a CSM and a Soviet [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soyuz_%28spacecraft%29 Soyuz] spacecraft from July 15 to July 24, 1975. NASA's next manned mission would not be until [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/STS-1 STS-1] in 1981.
 
The Apollo-Soyuz Test Project involved a docking in Earth orbit between a CSM and a Soviet [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soyuz_%28spacecraft%29 Soyuz] spacecraft from July 15 to July 24, 1975. NASA's next manned mission would not be until [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/STS-1 STS-1] in 1981.
 
==Recent observations==
 
==Recent observations==
[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Lroc_apollo11_landing_site_20091109_zoom.jpg][http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Lroc_apollo11_landing_site_20091109_zoom.jpg]“There the [Apollo 11] lunar module sits, parked just where it landed 40 years ago, as if it still really were 40 years ago and all the time since merely imaginary.” –''The New York Times''<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-nyt_lro_lm_img_36-0">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_note-nyt_lro_lm_img-36 &#91;37&#93;]</sup>In 2008, [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Japan_Aerospace_Exploration_Agency Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency]'s [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SELENE SELENE] probe observed evidence of the halo surrounding the Apollo 15 lunar module blast crater while orbiting above the lunar surface.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-37">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_note-37 &#91;38&#93;]</sup> In 2009, NASA's [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robotic_spacecraft robotic] [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lunar_Reconnaissance_Orbiter Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter], while orbiting 50 kilometres (31&nbsp;mi) above the moon, photographed the remnants of the Apollo program left on the lunar surface, and photographed each site where manned Apollo flights landed.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-38">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_note-38 &#91;39&#93;]</sup><sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-39">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_note-39 &#91;40&#93;]</sup>
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[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Lroc_apollo11_landing_site_20091109_zoom.jpg][http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Lroc_apollo11_landing_site_20091109_zoom.jpg]“There the [Apollo 11] lunar module sits, parked just where it landed 40 years ago, as if it still really were 40 years ago and all the time since merely imaginary.” –''The New York Times''<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-nyt_lro_lm_img_36-0">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_note-nyt_lro_lm_img-36 &#91;37&#93;]</sup>In 2008, [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Japan_Aerospace_Exploration_Agency Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency]'s [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SELENE SELENE] probe observed evidence of the halo surrounding the Apollo 15 lunar module blast crater while orbiting above the lunar surface.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-37">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_note-37 &#91;38&#93;]</sup> In 2009, NASA's [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robotic_spacecraft robotic] [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lunar_Reconnaissance_Orbiter Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter], while orbiting 50 kilometres (31 mi) above the moon, photographed the remnants of the Apollo program left on the lunar surface, and photographed each site where manned Apollo flights landed.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-38">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_note-38 &#91;39&#93;]</sup><sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-39">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_note-39 &#91;40&#93;]</sup>
   
 
In a November 16, 2009 editorial, ''The New York Times'' opined:
 
In a November 16, 2009 editorial, ''The New York Times'' opined:
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==Notes==
 
==Notes==
 
#^ [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_ref-Special_Message_0-0 <sup>'''''a'''''</sup>] [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_ref-Special_Message_0-1 <sup>'''''b'''''</sup>] [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_F._Kennedy Kennedy, John F].[http://www.jfklibrary.org/Asset-Viewer/xzw1gaeeTES6khED14P1Iw.aspx "Special Message to the Congress on Urgent National Needs"]. jfklibrary.org, May 25, 1961.
 
#^ [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_ref-Special_Message_0-0 <sup>'''''a'''''</sup>] [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_ref-Special_Message_0-1 <sup>'''''b'''''</sup>] [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_F._Kennedy Kennedy, John F].[http://www.jfklibrary.org/Asset-Viewer/xzw1gaeeTES6khED14P1Iw.aspx "Special Message to the Congress on Urgent National Needs"]. jfklibrary.org, May 25, 1961.
#^ [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_ref-Cox.2C_pp._16-17_1-0 <sup>'''''a'''''</sup>] [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_ref-Cox.2C_pp._16-17_1-1 <sup>'''''b'''''</sup>] Murray and Cox, ''Apollo'', pp.&nbsp;16–17.
+
#^ [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_ref-Cox.2C_pp._16-17_1-0 <sup>'''''a'''''</sup>] [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_ref-Cox.2C_pp._16-17_1-1 <sup>'''''b'''''</sup>] Murray and Cox, ''Apollo'', pp. 16-17.
 
#'''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_ref-2 ^]''' [http://history.nasa.gov/ap11ann/missions.htm 30th Anniversary of Apollo 11, Manned Apollo Missions]. NASA, 1999.
 
#'''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_ref-2 ^]''' [http://history.nasa.gov/ap11ann/missions.htm 30th Anniversary of Apollo 11, Manned Apollo Missions]. NASA, 1999.
#'''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_ref-3 ^]''' Murray and Cox, ''Apollo'', p.&nbsp;55.
+
#'''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_ref-3 ^]''' Murray and Cox, ''Apollo'', p. 55.
 
#'''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_ref-4 ^]''' http://www.nasa.gov/centers/glenn/about/history/apollo_press_release.html
 
#'''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_ref-4 ^]''' http://www.nasa.gov/centers/glenn/about/history/apollo_press_release.html
#'''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_ref-5 ^]''' Murray and Cox, ''Apollo'', p.&nbsp;60.
+
#'''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_ref-5 ^]''' Murray and Cox, ''Apollo'', p. 60.
 
#'''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_ref-6 ^]''' Beschloss, 'Kennedy and the Decision to Go to the Moon,' in Launius and McCurdy, eds., ''Spaceflight and the Myth of Presidential Leadership''.
 
#'''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_ref-6 ^]''' Beschloss, 'Kennedy and the Decision to Go to the Moon,' in Launius and McCurdy, eds., ''Spaceflight and the Myth of Presidential Leadership''.
#'''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_ref-7 ^]''' Sidey, ''John F. Kennedy'', pp.&nbsp;117–118.
+
#'''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_ref-7 ^]''' Sidey, ''John F. Kennedy'', pp. 117-118.
#'''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_ref-8 ^]''' Beschloss, 'Kennedy and the Decision to Go to the Moon', p.&nbsp;55.
+
#'''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_ref-8 ^]''' Beschloss, 'Kennedy and the Decision to Go to the Moon', p. 55.
 
#'''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_ref-9 ^]''' "Discussion of Soviet Man-in-Space Shot," Hearing before the Committee on Science and Astronautics, U.S. House of Representatives, 87th Congress, First Session, April 13, 1961.
 
#'''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_ref-9 ^]''' "Discussion of Soviet Man-in-Space Shot," Hearing before the Committee on Science and Astronautics, U.S. House of Representatives, 87th Congress, First Session, April 13, 1961.
#'''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_ref-10 ^]''' Sidey, ''John F. Kennedy'', p.&nbsp;114
+
#'''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_ref-10 ^]''' Sidey, ''John F. Kennedy'', p. 114
 
#'''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_ref-11 ^]''' Kennedy to Johnson, [http://www.hq.nasa.gov/office/pao/History/Apollomon/apollo1.pdf "Memorandum for Vice President,"] April 20, 1961.
 
#'''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_ref-11 ^]''' Kennedy to Johnson, [http://www.hq.nasa.gov/office/pao/History/Apollomon/apollo1.pdf "Memorandum for Vice President,"] April 20, 1961.
 
#^ [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_ref-lbjmemo_12-0 <sup>'''''a'''''</sup>] [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_ref-lbjmemo_12-1 <sup>'''''b'''''</sup>] Johnson to Kennedy, [http://www.hq.nasa.gov/office/pao/History/Apollomon/apollo2.pdf "Evaluation of Space Program,"] April 28, 1961.
 
#^ [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_ref-lbjmemo_12-0 <sup>'''''a'''''</sup>] [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_ref-lbjmemo_12-1 <sup>'''''b'''''</sup>] Johnson to Kennedy, [http://www.hq.nasa.gov/office/pao/History/Apollomon/apollo2.pdf "Evaluation of Space Program,"] April 28, 1961.
Line 191: Line 191:
 
#'''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_ref-14 ^]''' [http://www.nasa.gov/centers/langley/news/factsheets/Apollo.html NASA Langley Research Center's Contributions to the Apollo Program]. NASA Langley Research Center.
 
#'''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_ref-14 ^]''' [http://www.nasa.gov/centers/langley/news/factsheets/Apollo.html NASA Langley Research Center's Contributions to the Apollo Program]. NASA Langley Research Center.
 
#'''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_ref-Rice_Speech_15-0 ^]''' [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_F._Kennedy John F. Kennedy],[http://www.jfklibrary.org/Historical+Resources/Archives/Reference+Desk/Speeches/JFK/003POF03SpaceEffort09121962.htm "Address at Rice University on the Nation's Space Effort"]
 
#'''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_ref-Rice_Speech_15-0 ^]''' [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_F._Kennedy John F. Kennedy],[http://www.jfklibrary.org/Historical+Resources/Archives/Reference+Desk/Speeches/JFK/003POF03SpaceEffort09121962.htm "Address at Rice University on the Nation's Space Effort"]
#'''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_ref-16 ^]''' Brooks, Grimwood and Swenson, ''Chariots for Apollo'', p.&nbsp;71.
+
#'''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_ref-16 ^]''' Brooks, Grimwood and Swenson, ''Chariots for Apollo'', p. 71.
 
#'''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_ref-hansen21_17-0 ^]''' Hansen, ''Enchanted Rendezvous'', p 21
 
#'''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_ref-hansen21_17-0 ^]''' Hansen, ''Enchanted Rendezvous'', p 21
 
#'''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_ref-hansen24_18-0 ^]''' Hansen, ''Enchanted Rendezvous'', p 24
 
#'''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_ref-hansen24_18-0 ^]''' Hansen, ''Enchanted Rendezvous'', p 24
#'''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_ref-19 ^]''' Hansen, ''Enchanted Rendezvous'', p.&nbsp;27.
+
#'''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_ref-19 ^]''' Hansen, ''Enchanted Rendezvous'', p. 27.
 
#'''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_ref-20 ^]''' Garber, Steve (February 3, 2003). [http://history.nasa.gov/Apollo204/phillip1.html "NASA Apollo Mission Apollo-1 -- Phillips Report"]. NASA History Office. http://history.nasa.gov/Apollo204/phillip1.html. Retrieved April 14, 2010.<span style="display: none;"> </span>
 
#'''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_ref-20 ^]''' Garber, Steve (February 3, 2003). [http://history.nasa.gov/Apollo204/phillip1.html "NASA Apollo Mission Apollo-1 -- Phillips Report"]. NASA History Office. http://history.nasa.gov/Apollo204/phillip1.html. Retrieved April 14, 2010.<span style="display: none;"> </span>
 
#'''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_ref-21 ^]''' [http://www.hq.nasa.gov/office/pao/History/Apollo204/find.html Report of the Apollo 204 Review Board, Findings and Recommendations]
 
#'''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_ref-21 ^]''' [http://www.hq.nasa.gov/office/pao/History/Apollo204/find.html Report of the Apollo 204 Review Board, Findings and Recommendations]
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#'''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_ref-26 ^]''' Saturn V News Reference: Second Stage Fact Sheet
 
#'''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_ref-26 ^]''' Saturn V News Reference: Second Stage Fact Sheet
 
#'''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_ref-27 ^]''' Saturn V News Reference: Third Stage Fact Sheet
 
#'''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_ref-27 ^]''' Saturn V News Reference: Third Stage Fact Sheet
#'''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_ref-28 ^]''' Murray and Cox, ''Apollo'', p.&nbsp;238.
+
#'''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_ref-28 ^]''' Murray and Cox, ''Apollo'', p. 238.
#'''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_ref-29 ^]''' Murray and Cox, ''Apollo'', p.&nbsp;248.
+
#'''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_ref-29 ^]''' Murray and Cox, ''Apollo'', p. 248.
 
#'''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_ref-30 ^]''' See [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neil_Armstrong#First_Moon_walk Neil Armstrong#First Moon walk] for more information.
 
#'''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_ref-30 ^]''' See [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neil_Armstrong#First_Moon_walk Neil Armstrong#First Moon walk] for more information.
 
#'''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_ref-31 ^]''' James Papike, Grahm Ryder, and Charles Shearer (1998). "Lunar Samples". ''Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry'' '''36''': 5.1–5.234.<span style="display: none;"> </span>
 
#'''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_ref-31 ^]''' James Papike, Grahm Ryder, and Charles Shearer (1998). "Lunar Samples". ''Reviews in Mineralogy and Geochemistry'' '''36''': 5.1–5.234.<span style="display: none;"> </span>
#'''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_ref-32 ^]''' Burrows, William E. (1999). ''This New Ocean: The Story of the First Space Age''. Modern Library. p.&nbsp;431. [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number ISBN] [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Special:BookSources/0375754857 0375754857]. [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Online_Computer_Library_Center OCLC] [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/42136309 42136309].<span style="display: none;"> </span>
+
#'''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_ref-32 ^]''' Burrows, William E. (1999). ''This New Ocean: The Story of the First Space Age''. Modern Library. p. 431. [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number ISBN] [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Special:BookSources/0375754857 0375754857]. [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Online_Computer_Library_Center OCLC] [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/42136309 42136309].<span style="display: none;"> </span>
#^ [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_ref-Butts_33-0 <sup>'''''a'''''</sup>] [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_ref-Butts_33-1 <sup>'''''b'''''</sup>] Butts, Glenn; Linton, Kent (April 28, 2009). [http://science.ksc.nasa.gov/shuttle/nexgen/Nexgen_Downloads/Butts_NASA%27s_Joint_Cost-Schedule_Paradox_-_A_History_of_Denial.pdf "The Joint Confidence Level Paradox: A History of Denial, 2009 NASA Cost Symposium"]. pp.&nbsp;25–26. [http://science.ksc.nasa.gov/shuttle/nexgen/Nexgen_Downloads/Butts_NASA%27s_Joint_Cost-Schedule_Paradox_-_A_History_of_Denial.pdf http://science.ksc.nasa.gov/shuttle/nexgen/Nexgen_Downloads/Butts_NASA's_Joint_Cost-Schedule_Paradox_-_A_History_of_Denial.pdf]<span style="display: none;"> </span>
+
#^ [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_ref-Butts_33-0 <sup>'''''a'''''</sup>] [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_ref-Butts_33-1 <sup>'''''b'''''</sup>] Butts, Glenn; Linton, Kent (April 28, 2009). [http://science.ksc.nasa.gov/shuttle/nexgen/Nexgen_Downloads/Butts_NASA%27s_Joint_Cost-Schedule_Paradox_-_A_History_of_Denial.pdf "The Joint Confidence Level Paradox: A History of Denial, 2009 NASA Cost Symposium"]. pp. 25–26. [http://science.ksc.nasa.gov/shuttle/nexgen/Nexgen_Downloads/Butts_NASA%27s_Joint_Cost-Schedule_Paradox_-_A_History_of_Denial.pdf http://science.ksc.nasa.gov/shuttle/nexgen/Nexgen_Downloads/Butts_NASA's_Joint_Cost-Schedule_Paradox_-_A_History_of_Denial.pdf]<span style="display: none;"> </span>
#'''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_ref-34 ^]''' House, Subcommittee on Manned Space Flight of the Committee on Science and Astronautics, 1974 NASA Authorization, Hearings on H.R. 4567, 93/2, Part 2, p.&nbsp;1271.
+
#'''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_ref-34 ^]''' House, Subcommittee on Manned Space Flight of the Committee on Science and Astronautics, 1974 NASA Authorization, Hearings on H.R. 4567, 93/2, Part 2, p. 1271.
 
#'''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_ref-35 ^]''' Hoagland, J. H.; Skolnikoff, E. B.. [http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19690013030 "The World Wide Spread of Space Technology"]. ''NASA Technical Reports Server''. NASA. http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19690013030. Retrieved 6 October 2011.<span style="display: none;"> </span>
 
#'''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_ref-35 ^]''' Hoagland, J. H.; Skolnikoff, E. B.. [http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19690013030 "The World Wide Spread of Space Technology"]. ''NASA Technical Reports Server''. NASA. http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19690013030. Retrieved 6 October 2011.<span style="display: none;"> </span>
 
#^ [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_ref-nyt_lro_lm_img_36-0 <sup>'''''a'''''</sup>] [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_ref-nyt_lro_lm_img_36-1 <sup>'''''b'''''</sup>] [http://www.nytimes.com/2009/11/17/opinion/17tue4.html "The Human Moon"]. The New York Times. November 16, 2009. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/11/17/opinion/17tue4.html. Retrieved November 19, 2009.<span style="display: none;"> </span>
 
#^ [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_ref-nyt_lro_lm_img_36-0 <sup>'''''a'''''</sup>] [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_ref-nyt_lro_lm_img_36-1 <sup>'''''b'''''</sup>] [http://www.nytimes.com/2009/11/17/opinion/17tue4.html "The Human Moon"]. The New York Times. November 16, 2009. http://www.nytimes.com/2009/11/17/opinion/17tue4.html. Retrieved November 19, 2009.<span style="display: none;"> </span>
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#'''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_ref-41 ^]''' [http://history.nasa.gov/ap11ann/introduction.htm 30th Anniversary of Apollo 11], NASA, 1999.
 
#'''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_ref-41 ^]''' [http://history.nasa.gov/ap11ann/introduction.htm 30th Anniversary of Apollo 11], NASA, 1999.
 
#'''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_ref-42 ^]''' [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/special_report/1999/07/99/the_Moon_landing/396037.stm 30th Anniversary of Apollo 11]. BBC, 23 July 1999.
 
#'''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_ref-42 ^]''' [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/special_report/1999/07/99/the_Moon_landing/396037.stm 30th Anniversary of Apollo 11]. BBC, 23 July 1999.
#'''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_ref-43 ^]''' Burrows, William E. (1999). ''This New Ocean: The Story of the First Space Age''. Modern Library. p.&nbsp;429. [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number ISBN] [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Special:BookSources/0375754857 0375754857]. [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Online_Computer_Library_Center OCLC] [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/42136309 42136309].<span style="display: none;"> </span>
+
#'''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_ref-43 ^]''' Burrows, William E. (1999). ''This New Ocean: The Story of the First Space Age''. Modern Library. p. 429. [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Standard_Book_Number ISBN] [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Special:BookSources/0375754857 0375754857]. [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Online_Computer_Library_Center OCLC] [http://www.worldcat.org/oclc/42136309 42136309].<span style="display: none;"> </span>
 
#'''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_ref-44 ^]''' [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Al_Gore Al Gore] (March 17, 2007). [http://forumpolitics.com/blogs/2007/03/17/an-inconvient-truth-transcript/ "An Inconvenient Truth Transcript"]. ''Politics Blog'' - a reproduction of the film's transcript. http://forumpolitics.com/blogs/2007/03/17/an-inconvient-truth-transcript/. Retrieved July 29, 2007.<span style="display: none;"> </span>
 
#'''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_ref-44 ^]''' [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Al_Gore Al Gore] (March 17, 2007). [http://forumpolitics.com/blogs/2007/03/17/an-inconvient-truth-transcript/ "An Inconvenient Truth Transcript"]. ''Politics Blog'' - a reproduction of the film's transcript. http://forumpolitics.com/blogs/2007/03/17/an-inconvient-truth-transcript/. Retrieved July 29, 2007.<span style="display: none;"> </span>
#'''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_ref-45 ^]''' ''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Economist The Economist]'', "[http://www.economist.com/node/18712369 Lexington: Apollo plus 50]", 21 May 2011, p.&nbsp;36.
+
#'''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_ref-45 ^]''' ''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Economist The Economist]'', "[http://www.economist.com/node/18712369 Lexington: Apollo plus 50]", 21 May 2011, p. 36.
 
#'''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_ref-46 ^]''' http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/apollo/40th/
 
#'''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_ref-46 ^]''' http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/apollo/40th/
 
#^ [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_ref-NPR_tapes_47-0 <sup>'''''a'''''</sup>] [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_ref-NPR_tapes_47-1 <sup>'''''b'''''</sup>] [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_ref-NPR_tapes_47-2 <sup>'''''c'''''</sup>] [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_ref-NPR_tapes_47-3 <sup>'''''d'''''</sup>] [http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=106637066 "Houston, We Erased The Apollo 11 Tapes"]. National Public Radio, July 16, 2009.
 
#^ [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_ref-NPR_tapes_47-0 <sup>'''''a'''''</sup>] [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_ref-NPR_tapes_47-1 <sup>'''''b'''''</sup>] [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_ref-NPR_tapes_47-2 <sup>'''''c'''''</sup>] [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_ref-NPR_tapes_47-3 <sup>'''''d'''''</sup>] [http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=106637066 "Houston, We Erased The Apollo 11 Tapes"]. National Public Radio, July 16, 2009.
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