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Apollo set [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_space_exploration_milestones,_1957-1969 major milestones] in human spaceflight. It stands alone in sending manned missions beyond [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Low_Earth_orbit low Earth orbit]; [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_8 Apollo 8] was the first manned spacecraft to orbit another celestial body, while [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_17 Apollo 17] marked the last moonwalk and the last manned mission beyond [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Low_Earth_orbit low Earth orbit]. The program spurred advances in many areas of technology incidental to rocketry and manned spaceflight, including [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avionics avionics], [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Telecommunications telecommunications], and [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computers computers]. Apollo also sparked interest in many fields of [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Engineering engineering] and left many physical facilities and machines developed for the program as landmarks. Its command modules and other objects and artifacts are displayed throughout the world, notably in the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Air_and_Space_Museum Smithsonian's Air and Space Museums] in Washington, DC and at NASA's centers in Florida, Texas and Alabama. The Apollo 13 Command Module is housed at the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kansas_Cosmosphere_and_Space_Center Kansas Cosmosphere and Space Center] in Hutchinson, Kansas.
 
Apollo set [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_space_exploration_milestones,_1957-1969 major milestones] in human spaceflight. It stands alone in sending manned missions beyond [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Low_Earth_orbit low Earth orbit]; [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_8 Apollo 8] was the first manned spacecraft to orbit another celestial body, while [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_17 Apollo 17] marked the last moonwalk and the last manned mission beyond [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Low_Earth_orbit low Earth orbit]. The program spurred advances in many areas of technology incidental to rocketry and manned spaceflight, including [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Avionics avionics], [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Telecommunications telecommunications], and [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Computers computers]. Apollo also sparked interest in many fields of [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Engineering engineering] and left many physical facilities and machines developed for the program as landmarks. Its command modules and other objects and artifacts are displayed throughout the world, notably in the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/National_Air_and_Space_Museum Smithsonian's Air and Space Museums] in Washington, DC and at NASA's centers in Florida, Texas and Alabama. The Apollo 13 Command Module is housed at the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kansas_Cosmosphere_and_Space_Center Kansas Cosmosphere and Space Center] in Hutchinson, Kansas.
 
==Background==
 
==Background==
See also: [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Space_Race Space Race]
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See also: [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Space_Race Space Race] The Apollo program was conceived early in 1960, during the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dwight_D._Eisenhower Eisenhower] administration, as a follow-up to America's Mercury program. While the Mercury capsule could only support one astronaut on a limited earth orbital mission, the Apollo spacecraft was to be able to carry three astronauts on a circumlunar flight and eventually to a lunar landing. The program was named after the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo Greek god of light and music] by NASA manager [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abe_Silverstein Abe Silverstein], who later said that "I was naming the spacecraft like I'd name my baby."<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-3">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_note-3 &#91;4&#93;]</sup> Dr. Silverstein recalls he chose the name after perusing a book of mythology at home one evening, early in 1960. He thought that the image of "Apollo riding his chariot across the Sun was appropriate to the grand scale of the proposed program."<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-4">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_note-4 &#91;5&#93;]</sup> While NASA went ahead with planning for Apollo, funding for the program was far from certain given Eisenhower's ambivalent attitude to manned spaceflight.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-5">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_note-5 &#91;6&#93;]</sup>
 
<nowiki> </nowiki>The Apollo program was conceived early in 1960, during the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dwight_D._Eisenhower Eisenhower] administration, as a follow-up to America's Mercury program. While the Mercury capsule could only support one astronaut on a limited earth orbital mission, the Apollo spacecraft was to be able to carry three astronauts on a circumlunar flight and eventually to a lunar landing. The program was named after the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo Greek god of light and music] by NASA manager [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abe_Silverstein Abe Silverstein], who later said that "I was naming the spacecraft like I'd name my baby."<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-3">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_note-3 &#91;4&#93;]</sup> Dr. Silverstein recalls he chose the name after perusing a book of mythology at home one evening, early in 1960. He thought that the image of "Apollo riding his chariot across the Sun was appropriate to the grand scale of the proposed program."<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-4">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_note-4 &#91;5&#93;]</sup> While NASA went ahead with planning for Apollo, funding for the program was far from certain given Eisenhower's ambivalent attitude to manned spaceflight.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-5">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_note-5 &#91;6&#93;]</sup>
 
 
[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Kennedy_Giving_Historic_Speech_to_Congress_-_GPN-2000-001658.jpg][http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Kennedy_Giving_Historic_Speech_to_Congress_-_GPN-2000-001658.jpg] President Kennedy addresses Congress, 1961, proposing to put a man on the Moon before the end of the decadeIn November 1960, John F. Kennedy was elected president after a campaign that promised American superiority over the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soviet_Union Soviet Union] in the fields of space exploration and missile defense. Using space exploration as a symbol of national prestige, he warned of a "[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Missile_gap missile gap]" between the two nations, pledging to make the U.S. not "first but, first and, first if, but first period."<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-6">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_note-6 &#91;7&#93;]</sup> Despite Kennedy's rhetoric, he did not immediately come to a decision on the status of the Apollo program once he became president. He knew little about the technical details of the space program, and was put off by the massive financial commitment required by a manned Moon landing.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-7">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_note-7 &#91;8&#93;]</sup> When Kennedy's newly-appointed NASA Administrator [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Edwin_Webb James Webb] requested a 30 percent budget increase for his agency, Kennedy supported an acceleration of NASA's large booster program but deferred a decision on the broader issue.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-8">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_note-8 &#91;9&#93;]</sup>
 
[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Kennedy_Giving_Historic_Speech_to_Congress_-_GPN-2000-001658.jpg][http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Kennedy_Giving_Historic_Speech_to_Congress_-_GPN-2000-001658.jpg] President Kennedy addresses Congress, 1961, proposing to put a man on the Moon before the end of the decadeIn November 1960, John F. Kennedy was elected president after a campaign that promised American superiority over the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soviet_Union Soviet Union] in the fields of space exploration and missile defense. Using space exploration as a symbol of national prestige, he warned of a "[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Missile_gap missile gap]" between the two nations, pledging to make the U.S. not "first but, first and, first if, but first period."<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-6">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_note-6 &#91;7&#93;]</sup> Despite Kennedy's rhetoric, he did not immediately come to a decision on the status of the Apollo program once he became president. He knew little about the technical details of the space program, and was put off by the massive financial commitment required by a manned Moon landing.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-7">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_note-7 &#91;8&#93;]</sup> When Kennedy's newly-appointed NASA Administrator [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Edwin_Webb James Webb] requested a 30 percent budget increase for his agency, Kennedy supported an acceleration of NASA's large booster program but deferred a decision on the broader issue.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-8">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_program#cite_note-8 &#91;9&#93;]</sup>
   
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