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{{About|the proposed NASA mission|asteroid mining and utilization|Asteroid mining}}
 
{{About|the proposed NASA mission|asteroid mining and utilization|Asteroid mining}}
{{Use American English|date=March 2014}}
 
{{Use mdy dates|date=March 2014}}
 
 
 
[[File:Asteroid capture-planB.jpg|thumb|Grippers on the end of the robotic arms are used to grasp and secure a boulder from a large asteroid. Once the boulder is secured, the legs will push off and provide an initial ascent without the use of thrusters.]]
 
[[File:Asteroid capture-planB.jpg|thumb|Grippers on the end of the robotic arms are used to grasp and secure a boulder from a large asteroid. Once the boulder is secured, the legs will push off and provide an initial ascent without the use of thrusters.]]
   
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The spacecraft will characterize the asteroid and demonstrate at least one [[planetary defense]] technique before transporting the boulder to a stable [[lunar orbit]], where it could be further analyzed both by robotic probes and by a future [[manned mission to an asteroid|manned mission]].<ref name=wall-2013>
 
The spacecraft will characterize the asteroid and demonstrate at least one [[planetary defense]] technique before transporting the boulder to a stable [[lunar orbit]], where it could be further analyzed both by robotic probes and by a future [[manned mission to an asteroid|manned mission]].<ref name=wall-2013>
{{cite news | url=http://www.space.com/20612-nasa-asteroid-capture-mission-explained.html | title=Inside NASA's Plan to Catch an Asteroid (Bruce Willis Not Required) | work=[[Space.com]] | date=April 10, 2013 | agency=TechMediaNetwork | accessdate=April 10, 2013 | last=Wall |first=Mike }}
+
{{cite news | url=http://www.space.com/20612-nasa-asteroid-capture-mission-explained.html | title=Inside NASA's Plan to Catch an Asteroid (Bruce Willis Not Required) | work=[[Space.com]] | date=April 10, 2013 | agency=TechMediaNetwork | accessdate=April 10, 2013 | last=Wall |first=Mike}}
 
</ref> If funded, the mission would be launched in December 2021,<ref name=sn-20160303 /> with the additional objectives to test a number of new capabilities needed for future human expeditions to deep space, including advanced [[ion thruster]]s.<ref>
 
</ref> If funded, the mission would be launched in December 2021,<ref name=sn-20160303 /> with the additional objectives to test a number of new capabilities needed for future human expeditions to deep space, including advanced [[ion thruster]]s.<ref>
{{cite press release |url=http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/news.php?release=2013-131 |title=NASA Associate Administrator on Asteroid Initiative |publisher=[[JPL]] |location=Washington, DC |first=DC |last=Agle |date=April 10, 2013 |accessdate=2015-03-29 }}
+
{{cite press release |url=http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/news.php?release=2013-131 |title=NASA Associate Administrator on Asteroid Initiative |publisher=[[JPL]] |location=Washington, DC |first=DC |last=Agle |date=April 10, 2013 |accessdate=2015-03-29}}
 
</ref>
 
</ref>
   
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===Additional objectives===
 
===Additional objectives===
 
Additional mission aims include demonstrating [[Asteroid impact avoidance|planetary defense]] techniques able to protect the Earth in the future - such as using robotic spacecraft to deflect potentially hazardous asteroids.<ref name="claw 2015">
 
Additional mission aims include demonstrating [[Asteroid impact avoidance|planetary defense]] techniques able to protect the Earth in the future - such as using robotic spacecraft to deflect potentially hazardous asteroids.<ref name="claw 2015">
{{cite news |last=Foust |first=Jeff |url=http://spacenews.com/nasa-selects-boulder-option-for-asteroid-redirect-mission/ |title=NASA Selects Boulder Option for Asteroid Redirect Mission |work=[[SpaceNews (publication)|SpaceNews]] |date=March 25, 2015 |accessdate=2015-03-27 }}
+
{{cite news |last=Foust |first=Jeff |url=http://spacenews.com/nasa-selects-boulder-option-for-asteroid-redirect-mission/ |title=NASA Selects Boulder Option for Asteroid Redirect Mission |work=[[SpaceNews (publication)|SpaceNews]] |date=March 25, 2015 |accessdate=2015-03-27}}
 
</ref><ref name='steps 2015'>
 
</ref><ref name='steps 2015'>
{{cite web |url= http://www.nasa.gov/press/2015/march/nasa-announces-next-steps-on-journey-to-mars-progress-on-asteroid-initiative/index.html |title=NASA Announces Next Steps on Journey to Mars: Progress on Asteroid Initiative |publisher=[[NASA]] |date= March 25, 2015 |accessdate= March 25, 2015 }}
+
{{cite web |url= http://www.nasa.gov/press/2015/march/nasa-announces-next-steps-on-journey-to-mars-progress-on-asteroid-initiative/index.html |title=NASA Announces Next Steps on Journey to Mars: Progress on Asteroid Initiative |publisher=[[NASA]] |date= March 25, 2015 |accessdate= March 25, 2015}}
 
</ref> Under consideration for deflecting an asteroid are: grabbing the asteroid and directly moving it, as well as employing [[gravity tractor]] techniques after collecting a boulder from its surface.<ref name='Option B video'/>
 
</ref> Under consideration for deflecting an asteroid are: grabbing the asteroid and directly moving it, as well as employing [[gravity tractor]] techniques after collecting a boulder from its surface.<ref name='Option B video'/>
   
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The advanced ion engine uses 10 times less propellant than equivalent chemical rockets, it can process three times the power of previous designs, and increase efficiency by 50%.<ref name="SEP 2015">
 
The advanced ion engine uses 10 times less propellant than equivalent chemical rockets, it can process three times the power of previous designs, and increase efficiency by 50%.<ref name="SEP 2015">
{{cite news |url=http://spaceref.com/nasa-hack-space/hall-thruster-research-propelling-deep-space-missions.html |title=Hall Thruster Research: Propelling Deep Space Missions |work=SpaceRef |date=March 31, 2015 |accessdate=2015-03-31 }}
+
{{cite news |url=http://spaceref.com/nasa-hack-space/hall-thruster-research-propelling-deep-space-missions.html |title=Hall Thruster Research: Propelling Deep Space Missions |work=SpaceRef |date=March 31, 2015 |accessdate=2015-03-31}}
</ref> It will use the [[Hall effect|Hall-effect]], which provides low acceleration but can fire continuously for many years to thrust a large mass to high speed.<ref name=tate-2013 /> Hall effect thrusters trap electrons in a [[magnetic field]] and use them to ionize the onboard [[xenon]] gas propellant. The magnetic field also generates an [[electric field]] that accelerates the charged ions creating an exhaust plume of [[Plasma (physics)|plasma]] that pushes the spacecraft forward.<ref name="SEP 2015"/> The spacecraft concept would have a dry mass of 5.5 tons, and could store up to 13 tons of [[xenon]] propellant.<ref name="Kiss"/>
+
</ref> It will use the [[Hall effect|Hall-effect]], which provides low acceleration but can fire continuously for many years to thrust a large mass to high speed.<ref name=tate-2013 /> Hall effect thrusters trap electrons in a [[magnetic field]] and use them to ionize the onboard xenon gas propellant. The magnetic field also generates an [[electric field]] that accelerates the charged ions creating an exhaust plume of [[Plasma (physics)|plasma]] that pushes the spacecraft forward.<ref name="SEP 2015"/> The spacecraft concept would have a dry mass of 5.5 tons, and could store up to 13 tons of xenon propellant.<ref name="Kiss"/>
   
Each thruster will have a 30- to 50-kilowatt power level,<ref>[http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/tdm/green/sep_overview.html Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP)]. NASA.</ref> and several thrusters can be combined to increase the power of an SEP spacecraft. This engine, which is scalable to 300 kilowatts and beyond, is being researched and developed by [[Northrop Grumman]] with [[Sandia National Laboratories]] and the [[University of Michigan]].<ref name="Grumman 2012">
+
Each thruster will have a 30- to 50-kilowatt power level,<ref>[http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/tdm/green/sep_overview.html Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP)]. NASA.</ref> and several thrusters can be combined to increase the power of an SEP spacecraft. This engine, which is scalable to 300 kilowatts and beyond, is being researched and developed by Northrop Grumman with [[Sandia National Laboratories]] and the University of Michigan.<ref name="Grumman 2012">
{{cite news |last=Blake |first=Mary |url=http://www.irconnect.com/noc/press/pages/news_releases.html?d=244147 |title=Northrop Grumman Tapped by NASA to Develop Solar Electric Propulsion Flight Concepts for Future Space Missions |publisher=[[Northrop Grumman Corporation]] |date=January 31, 2012 |accessdate=2015-03-31 }}
+
{{cite news |last=Blake |first=Mary |url=http://www.irconnect.com/noc/press/pages/news_releases.html?d=244147 |title=Northrop Grumman Tapped by NASA to Develop Solar Electric Propulsion Flight Concepts for Future Space Missions |publisher=[[Northrop Grumman Corporation]] |date=January 31, 2012 |accessdate=2015-03-31}}
 
</ref> [[NASA Glenn Research Center]] is managing the project.<ref name="Grumman 2012"/>
 
</ref> [[NASA Glenn Research Center]] is managing the project.<ref name="Grumman 2012"/>
   
 
==Proposed timeline==
 
==Proposed timeline==
 
Originally planned for 2017, then 2020,<ref name='steps 2015'/><ref name="Option-B Boulder"/> the mission was recently pushed to December 2021 within a constant budget cap of $1.25 billion.<ref name=sn-20160303>
 
Originally planned for 2017, then 2020,<ref name='steps 2015'/><ref name="Option-B Boulder"/> the mission was recently pushed to December 2021 within a constant budget cap of $1.25 billion.<ref name=sn-20160303>
{{cite news |title=NASA slips schedule of Asteroid Redirect Mission |url=http://spacenews.com/nasa-slips-schedule-of-asteroid-redirect-mission/ |work=[[SpaceNews (publication)|SpaceNews]] |first=Jeff |last=Foust |date=March 3, 2016 |accessdate=March 6, 2016 }}
+
{{cite news |title=NASA slips schedule of Asteroid Redirect Mission |url=http://spacenews.com/nasa-slips-schedule-of-asteroid-redirect-mission/ |work=[[SpaceNews (publication)|SpaceNews]] |first=Jeff |last=Foust |date=March 3, 2016 |accessdate=March 6, 2016}}
 
</ref> The launch vehicle could be either a [[Delta IV Heavy]], [[Space Launch System|SLS]] or [[Falcon Heavy]].<ref name=nasa201507/> The boulder should arrive in lunar orbit by late 2025.<ref name="Option-B Boulder"/> If the Asteroid Redirect Mission and the [[Space Launch System]] or an equivalent heavy launch vehicle are both completed on schedule, a manned mission to the asteroid brought to lunar orbit could be launched in late 2026.<ref name=sn-20160303 />
 
</ref> The launch vehicle could be either a [[Delta IV Heavy]], [[Space Launch System|SLS]] or [[Falcon Heavy]].<ref name=nasa201507/> The boulder should arrive in lunar orbit by late 2025.<ref name="Option-B Boulder"/> If the Asteroid Redirect Mission and the [[Space Launch System]] or an equivalent heavy launch vehicle are both completed on schedule, a manned mission to the asteroid brought to lunar orbit could be launched in late 2026.<ref name=sn-20160303 />
   
 
==Target asteroid==
 
==Target asteroid==
{{asof |2016 |1}} more than 1,600 new [[Near-Earth Object|near-Earth asteroids]] have been discovered by various search teams and catalogued as [[potentially hazardous object]]s. NASA has yet to select a target for ARM, but for planning purposes it is currently using a near Earth asteroid named [[(341843) 2008 EV5]] of about {{convert|400|m|ft|abbr=on}} in diameter to pick up a single {{convert|4|m|ft|abbr=on}} boulder from it.<ref name="claw 2015"/> Other candidate parent asteroids are [[25143 Itokawa|Itokawa]], [[101955 Bennu|Bennu]], and [[162173 Ryugu|Ryugu]].<ref name=nasa201507>
+
{{as of |2016 |1}} more than 1,600 new [[Near-Earth Object|near-Earth asteroids]] have been discovered by various search teams and catalogued as [[potentially hazardous object]]s. NASA has yet to select a target for ARM, but for planning purposes it is currently using a near Earth asteroid named [[(341843) 2008 EV5]] of about {{convert|400|m|ft|abbr=on}} in diameter to pick up a single {{convert|4|m|ft|abbr=on}} boulder from it.<ref name="claw 2015"/> Other candidate parent asteroids are [[25143 Itokawa|Itokawa]], [[101955 Bennu|Bennu]], and [[162173 Ryugu|Ryugu]].<ref name=nasa201507>
{{cite web |url=http://www.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/files/3-20150728-Gates-NAC-HEO-Committee-rev5.pdf |format=PDF |title=Asteroid Redirect Mission Update |last=Gates |first=Michele |publisher=[[NASA]] |date=July 28, 2015 |accessdate=2015-09-06 }}
+
{{cite web |url=http://www.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/files/3-20150728-Gates-NAC-HEO-Committee-rev5.pdf |format=PDF |title=Asteroid Redirect Mission Update |last=Gates |first=Michele |publisher=[[NASA]] |date=July 28, 2015 |accessdate=2015-09-06}}
 
</ref> The decision on the target asteroid will be announced in 2019, allowing additional time to find alternative targets.<ref name='steps 2015'/>
 
</ref> The decision on the target asteroid will be announced in 2019, allowing additional time to find alternative targets.<ref name='steps 2015'/>
   
 
The [[C-type asteroid|carbonaceous boulder]] to be captured by NASA (maximum 6 meter diameter, 20 tons)<ref name="IndustryIdeas">
 
The [[C-type asteroid|carbonaceous boulder]] to be captured by NASA (maximum 6 meter diameter, 20 tons)<ref name="IndustryIdeas">
{{cite news |url=http://spaceref.biz/agencies/nasa-calls-for-american-industry-ideas-on-arm-spacecraft-development.html |title=NASA Calls for American Industry Ideas on ARM Spacecraft Development |work=SpaceRef |date=22 October 2015 |accessdate=2015-10-23 }}
+
{{cite news |url=http://spaceref.biz/agencies/nasa-calls-for-american-industry-ideas-on-arm-spacecraft-development.html |title=NASA Calls for American Industry Ideas on ARM Spacecraft Development |work=SpaceRef |date=22 October 2015 |accessdate=2015-10-23}}
 
</ref> is too small to harm the Earth because it would burn up in the atmosphere. Redirecting the asteroid mass to a distant retrograde orbit around the Moon will ensure it will not hit Earth and also leave it in a stable orbit for future studies.<ref name=NASA_web_20140627 />
 
</ref> is too small to harm the Earth because it would burn up in the atmosphere. Redirecting the asteroid mass to a distant retrograde orbit around the Moon will ensure it will not hit Earth and also leave it in a stable orbit for future studies.<ref name=NASA_web_20140627 />
   
 
==History==
 
==History==
 
The ARU mission, excluding any manned missions to an asteroid which it may enable, was the subject of a feasibility study in 2012 by the [[Keck Institute for Space Studies]].<ref name="Kiss">
 
The ARU mission, excluding any manned missions to an asteroid which it may enable, was the subject of a feasibility study in 2012 by the [[Keck Institute for Space Studies]].<ref name="Kiss">
{{cite web | url=http://kiss.caltech.edu/study/asteroid/asteroid_final_report.pdf | title=Asteroid Retrieval Feasibility Study | publisher=[[Keck Institute for Space Studies]], [[California Institute of Technology]], [[Jet Propulsion Laboratory]] | date=12 April 2012 |first1= John |last1=Brophy |first2=Fred |last2=Culick |first3=Louis |last3=Friedman and al }}
+
{{cite web | url=http://kiss.caltech.edu/study/asteroid/asteroid_final_report.pdf | title=Asteroid Retrieval Feasibility Study | publisher=[[Keck Institute for Space Studies]], California Institute of Technology, [[Jet Propulsion Laboratory]] | date=12 April 2012 |first1= John |last1=Brophy |first2=Fred |last2=Culick |first3=Louis |last3=Friedman and al}}
 
</ref> The mission cost was estimated by the [[Glenn Research Center]] at about $2.6 billion,<ref name=NASA-SSE>NASA Solar System Exploration, [https://solarsystem.nasa.gov/missions/profile.cfm?Sort=Nation&MCode=arm&Nation=USA&Display=ReadMore Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM)] (accessed September 30, 2014)</ref> of which $105 million was funded in 2014 to mature the concept.<ref name=malik-2013>
 
</ref> The mission cost was estimated by the [[Glenn Research Center]] at about $2.6 billion,<ref name=NASA-SSE>NASA Solar System Exploration, [https://solarsystem.nasa.gov/missions/profile.cfm?Sort=Nation&MCode=arm&Nation=USA&Display=ReadMore Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM)] (accessed September 30, 2014)</ref> of which $105 million was funded in 2014 to mature the concept.<ref name=malik-2013>
{{cite news | url=http://www.space.com/20605-nasa-budget-asteroid-lasso-2014.html | title=Obama Seeks $17.7 Billion for NASA to Lasso Asteroid, Explore Space | work=[[Space.com]] | date=March 27, 2015 | agency=TechMediaNetwork | accessdate=April 10, 2013 | last=Malik |first=Tariq }}
+
{{cite news | url=http://www.space.com/20605-nasa-budget-asteroid-lasso-2014.html | title=Obama Seeks $17.7 Billion for NASA to Lasso Asteroid, Explore Space | work=[[Space.com]] | date=March 27, 2015 | agency=TechMediaNetwork | accessdate=April 10, 2013 | last=Malik |first=Tariq}}
 
</ref><ref>[http://www.nasa.gov/pdf/740512main_FY2014%20CJ%20for%20Online.pdf NASA 2014 budget proposal on ARU mission]. (PDF)</ref> NASA officials emphasized that ARM was intended as one step in the long-term plans for a [[human mission to Mars]].<ref name="Option-B Boulder">
 
</ref><ref>[http://www.nasa.gov/pdf/740512main_FY2014%20CJ%20for%20Online.pdf NASA 2014 budget proposal on ARU mission]. (PDF)</ref> NASA officials emphasized that ARM was intended as one step in the long-term plans for a [[human mission to Mars]].<ref name="Option-B Boulder">
{{cite news |last=Foust |first=Jeff |url=http://spacenews.com/nasas-choice-for-asteroid-redirect-mission-may-not-sway-skeptics/ |title=NASA’s Choice for Asteroid Redirect Mission May Not Sway Skeptics |work=[[SpaceNews (publication)|SpaceNews]] |location=Washington DC |date=March 27, 2015 |accessdate=2015-03-28 }}
+
{{cite news |last=Foust |first=Jeff |url=http://spacenews.com/nasas-choice-for-asteroid-redirect-mission-may-not-sway-skeptics/ |title=NASA’s Choice for Asteroid Redirect Mission May Not Sway Skeptics |work=[[SpaceNews (publication)|SpaceNews]] |location=Washington DC |date=March 27, 2015 |accessdate=2015-03-28}}
 
</ref>
 
</ref>
   
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The crewed portion to retrieve asteroid samples from the Moon orbit ([[Orion (spacecraft)#Orion Program mission schedule|Orion EM-3]]) has been criticized as an unnecessary part of the mission, as thousands of meteorites have already been analyzed,<ref>
 
The crewed portion to retrieve asteroid samples from the Moon orbit ([[Orion (spacecraft)#Orion Program mission schedule|Orion EM-3]]) has been criticized as an unnecessary part of the mission, as thousands of meteorites have already been analyzed,<ref>
{{cite news |last=Grush |first=Loren |url=http://www.popsci.com/article/technology/everyone-hates-nasas-asteroid-capture-program?src=SOC&dom=tw |title=Everyone Hates NASA's Asteroid Capture Program |magazine=[[Popular Science]] |date= August 7, 2014 |accessdate=2015-03-27 }}
+
{{cite news |last=Grush |first=Loren |url=http://www.popsci.com/article/technology/everyone-hates-nasas-asteroid-capture-program?src=SOC&dom=tw |title=Everyone Hates NASA's Asteroid Capture Program |magazine=Popular Science |date= August 7, 2014 |accessdate=2015-03-27}}
 
</ref> and by claiming that the technology used to retrieve one boulder does not help develop a crewed mission to Mars.<ref name="Option-B Boulder"/> The plans were not changed despite the NASA Advisory Council suggested on 10 April 2015 that NASA should not carry out its plans for ARM, and should instead develop [[solar electric propulsion]] and use it to power a spacecraft on a round-trip flight to Mars.<ref>
 
</ref> and by claiming that the technology used to retrieve one boulder does not help develop a crewed mission to Mars.<ref name="Option-B Boulder"/> The plans were not changed despite the NASA Advisory Council suggested on 10 April 2015 that NASA should not carry out its plans for ARM, and should instead develop [[solar electric propulsion]] and use it to power a spacecraft on a round-trip flight to Mars.<ref>
{{cite news |last=Staff |url=http://spacenews.com/31-space-symposium/ |title=News from the 31st Space Symposium: Bolden Not Concerned About ARM Criticism |work=[[SpaceNews (publication)|SpaceNews]] |date=13 April 2015 |accessdate=2015-04-15 }}
+
{{cite news |last=Staff |url=http://spacenews.com/31-space-symposium/ |title=News from the 31st Space Symposium: Bolden Not Concerned About ARM Criticism |work=[[SpaceNews (publication)|SpaceNews]] |date=13 April 2015 |accessdate=2015-04-15}}
 
</ref>
 
</ref>
   
 
In January 2016 contracts were awarded by NASA’s [[Jet Propulsion Laboratory]] (JPL) for design studies for a solar-electric-propulsion-based spacecraft for the agency's Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM). The robotic ARRM mission is the first phase of ARM. The contracts were won by [[Lockheed Martin Space Systems]], Littleton, Colorado; [[Boeing Phantom Works]], Huntington Beach, California; [[Orbital ATK]], Dulles, Virginia; and [[Space Systems/Loral]], Palo Alto, California.<ref name=NASA_ARRM_20160127>
 
In January 2016 contracts were awarded by NASA’s [[Jet Propulsion Laboratory]] (JPL) for design studies for a solar-electric-propulsion-based spacecraft for the agency's Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM). The robotic ARRM mission is the first phase of ARM. The contracts were won by [[Lockheed Martin Space Systems]], Littleton, Colorado; [[Boeing Phantom Works]], Huntington Beach, California; [[Orbital ATK]], Dulles, Virginia; and [[Space Systems/Loral]], Palo Alto, California.<ref name=NASA_ARRM_20160127>
{{cite web|title=Companies Selected to Provide Early Design Work for Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission Spacecraft |url=http://www.nasa.gov/feature/companies-selected-to-provide-early-design-work-for-asteroid-redirect-robotic-mission |publisher=[[NASA]] |accessdate=January 30, 2016 }}
+
{{cite web|title=Companies Selected to Provide Early Design Work for Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission Spacecraft |url=http://www.nasa.gov/feature/companies-selected-to-provide-early-design-work-for-asteroid-redirect-robotic-mission |publisher=[[NASA]] |accessdate=January 30, 2016}}
 
</ref>
 
</ref>
   
 
==See also==
 
==See also==
{{Portal|Spaceflight}}
 
 
{{div col|2}}
 
{{div col|2}}
 
* [[Asteroid capture]]
 
* [[Asteroid capture]]
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{{div col end}}
 
{{div col end}}
   
== References ==
+
==References==
 
{{Reflist|2}}
 
{{Reflist|2}}
   
== External links ==
+
==External links==
{{commons category|Asteroid Redirect Mission}}
+
{{Commons|Category:Asteroid Redirect Mission}}
 
* [http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/asteroids/initiative/index.html Asteroid Initiative Program] by NASA
 
* [http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/asteroids/initiative/index.html Asteroid Initiative Program] by NASA
 
;YouTube videos:
 
;YouTube videos:
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{{Asteroid spacecraft}}
 
{{Asteroid spacecraft}}
 
{{Planetary defense}}
 
{{Planetary defense}}
  +
{{Wikipedia|Asteroid Redirect Mission}}
   
[[Category:Articles created via the Article Wizard]]
 
 
[[Category:Missions to asteroids]]
 
[[Category:Missions to asteroids]]
 
[[Category:Proposed spacecraft]]
 
[[Category:Proposed spacecraft]]

Latest revision as of 00:42, January 31, 2018

Asteroid capture-planB

Grippers on the end of the robotic arms are used to grasp and secure a boulder from a large asteroid. Once the boulder is secured, the legs will push off and provide an initial ascent without the use of thrusters.

The Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM), also known as the Asteroid Retrieval and Utilization (ARU) mission and the Asteroid Initiative, is a potential future space mission proposed by NASA. Still in the early stages of planning and development, the spacecraft would rendezvous with a large near-Earth asteroid and use robotic arms with anchoring grippers to retrieve a 6-meter boulder from the asteroid.

The spacecraft will characterize the asteroid and demonstrate at least one planetary defense technique before transporting the boulder to a stable lunar orbit, where it could be further analyzed both by robotic probes and by a future manned mission.[1] If funded, the mission would be launched in December 2021,[2] with the additional objectives to test a number of new capabilities needed for future human expeditions to deep space, including advanced ion thrusters.[3]

ObjectiveEdit

The main objective is to develop the required technology to bring a small near-Earth asteroid into lunar orbit. There, it could be analyzed by the crew of the Orion EM-5 or EM-6 mission in 2026.[2][4][5]

Additional objectivesEdit

Additional mission aims include demonstrating planetary defense techniques able to protect the Earth in the future - such as using robotic spacecraft to deflect potentially hazardous asteroids.[4][6] Under consideration for deflecting an asteroid are: grabbing the asteroid and directly moving it, as well as employing gravity tractor techniques after collecting a boulder from its surface.[7]

The mission would also test the performance of advanced solar electric propulsion (ion engines)[8] and broad-band laser communication in space.[9] These new technologies will help send the large amounts of cargo, habitats, and propellant to Mars in advance of a human mission to Mars.[5][6][10][11]

NASA Asteroid Redirect Mission
NASA Asteroid Redirect Mission gravity tractor animation
The asteroid redirect vehicle demonstrates the "gravity tractor" planetary defense technique on a hazardous-size asteroid. This method leverages the mass of the spacecraft (18 tons[12]) and its 6m boulder cargo (at least 20 tons[13]) to impart a gravitational force on the asteroid, slowly altering the asteroid's trajectory. (ogv; gif)

Spacecraft overviewEdit

Asteroid Redirect Mission Option B

Asteroid grippers on the end of the robotic arms are used to grasp and secure a 6 m boulder from a large asteroid. An integrated drill will be used to provide final anchoring of the boulder to the capture mechanism.

Asteroid Redirect Mission-Option B

Close-up of the Asteroid Redirect Vehicle departing the asteroid after capturing a boulder from its surface.

The vehicle would land on a large asteroid and grippers on the end of the robotic arms would grasp and secure a boulder from the surface of a large asteroid. The grippers will dig into the boulder and create a strong grip. An integrated drill will be used to provide final anchoring of the boulder to the capture mechanism.[14] Once the boulder is secured, the legs will push off and provide an initial ascent without the use of thrusters.[4][7]

PropulsionEdit

The spacecraft would be propelled by advanced solar electric propulsion (SEP) (possibly a Hall effect thruster, see Ion thruster). Electricity will be provided by high efficiency ring-shaped solar panels (50 kW).[8][15]

The advanced ion engine uses 10 times less propellant than equivalent chemical rockets, it can process three times the power of previous designs, and increase efficiency by 50%.[16] It will use the Hall-effect, which provides low acceleration but can fire continuously for many years to thrust a large mass to high speed.[8] Hall effect thrusters trap electrons in a magnetic field and use them to ionize the onboard xenon gas propellant. The magnetic field also generates an electric field that accelerates the charged ions creating an exhaust plume of plasma that pushes the spacecraft forward.[16] The spacecraft concept would have a dry mass of 5.5 tons, and could store up to 13 tons of xenon propellant.[17]

Each thruster will have a 30- to 50-kilowatt power level,[18] and several thrusters can be combined to increase the power of an SEP spacecraft. This engine, which is scalable to 300 kilowatts and beyond, is being researched and developed by Northrop Grumman with Sandia National Laboratories and the University of Michigan.[19] NASA Glenn Research Center is managing the project.[19]

Proposed timelineEdit

Originally planned for 2017, then 2020,[6][14] the mission was recently pushed to December 2021 within a constant budget cap of $1.25 billion.[2] The launch vehicle could be either a Delta IV Heavy, SLS or Falcon Heavy.[20] The boulder should arrive in lunar orbit by late 2025.[14] If the Asteroid Redirect Mission and the Space Launch System or an equivalent heavy launch vehicle are both completed on schedule, a manned mission to the asteroid brought to lunar orbit could be launched in late 2026.[2]

Target asteroidEdit

As of January 2016 more than 1,600 new near-Earth asteroids have been discovered by various search teams and catalogued as potentially hazardous objects. NASA has yet to select a target for ARM, but for planning purposes it is currently using a near Earth asteroid named (341843) 2008 EV5 of about 400 m (Template:Convert/round ft) in diameter to pick up a single 4 m (Template:Convert/round ft) boulder from it.[4] Other candidate parent asteroids are Itokawa, Bennu, and Ryugu.[20] The decision on the target asteroid will be announced in 2019, allowing additional time to find alternative targets.[6]

The carbonaceous boulder to be captured by NASA (maximum 6 meter diameter, 20 tons)[13] is too small to harm the Earth because it would burn up in the atmosphere. Redirecting the asteroid mass to a distant retrograde orbit around the Moon will ensure it will not hit Earth and also leave it in a stable orbit for future studies.[10]

HistoryEdit

The ARU mission, excluding any manned missions to an asteroid which it may enable, was the subject of a feasibility study in 2012 by the Keck Institute for Space Studies.[17] The mission cost was estimated by the Glenn Research Center at about $2.6 billion,[21] of which $105 million was funded in 2014 to mature the concept.[9][22] NASA officials emphasized that ARM was intended as one step in the long-term plans for a human mission to Mars.[14]

Asteroid capture

The 'Option A' was to deploy a container large enough to capture a free-flying asteroid up to 8 m (Template:Convert/round ft) in diameter.

The two options studied to retrieve a small asteroid were Option A and Option B. Option A would deploy a large Template:Convert/round-metre (50 ft) capture bag capable of holding a small asteroid up to 8 m (Template:Convert/round ft) in diameter,[8] and a mass of up to 500 tons.[9] Option B, which was selected in March 2015, would have the vehicle land on a large asteroid and deploy robotic arms to lift up a boulder up to 4 m (Template:Convert/round ft) in diameter from the surface, transport it and place it into lunar orbit.[4][10] This option was identified as more relevant to future rendezvous, autonomous docking, lander, sampler, planetary defense, mining, and spacecraft servicing technologies.[23][24]

The crewed portion to retrieve asteroid samples from the Moon orbit (Orion EM-3) has been criticized as an unnecessary part of the mission, as thousands of meteorites have already been analyzed,[25] and by claiming that the technology used to retrieve one boulder does not help develop a crewed mission to Mars.[14] The plans were not changed despite the NASA Advisory Council suggested on 10 April 2015 that NASA should not carry out its plans for ARM, and should instead develop solar electric propulsion and use it to power a spacecraft on a round-trip flight to Mars.[26]

In January 2016 contracts were awarded by NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for design studies for a solar-electric-propulsion-based spacecraft for the agency's Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission (ARRM). The robotic ARRM mission is the first phase of ARM. The contracts were won by Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Littleton, Colorado; Boeing Phantom Works, Huntington Beach, California; Orbital ATK, Dulles, Virginia; and Space Systems/Loral, Palo Alto, California.[27]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

  1. Template:Cite news
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Template:Cite news
  3. Template:Cite press release
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 Template:Cite news
  5. 5.0 5.1 How Will NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission Help Humans Reach Mars?. NASA, June 27, 2014.
  6. 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 "NASA Announces Next Steps on Journey to Mars: Progress on Asteroid Initiative". NASA. March 25, 2015. http://www.nasa.gov/press/2015/march/nasa-announces-next-steps-on-journey-to-mars-progress-on-asteroid-initiative/index.html. Retrieved March 25, 2015. 
  7. 7.0 7.1 NASA YouTube video:ARM, 'Option B': Boulder collection from a large asteroid.
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 Template:Cite news
  9. 9.0 9.1 9.2 Template:Cite news
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 Erin Mahoney. "What Is NASA's Asteroid Redirect Mission?". NASA. http://www.nasa.gov/content/what-is-nasa-s-asteroid-redirect-mission. Retrieved July 6, 2014. 
  11. Kathleen C. Laurini and Michele M. Gates, "NASA's Space Exploration Planning: the Asteroid Mission and the Step Wise Path to Mars", 65th International Astronautical Congress, Toronto, Canada, Sept-Oct. 2014. This paper (and related papers from the 65 IAC) can be found on the NASA page Asteroid Initiative Related Documents (accessed 5 January 2014)
  12. "Asteroid Retrieval Feasibility Study". Keck Institute for Space Studies, California Institute of Technology, Jet Propulsion Laboratory. 12 April 2012. http://kiss.caltech.edu/study/asteroid/asteroid_final_report.pdf. "Table 1: Asteroid Mass Scaling (for spherical asteroids). Page 17." 
  13. 13.0 13.1 Template:Cite news
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 14.3 14.4 Template:Cite news
  15. Advanced Solar Arrays: Powering Exploration. NASA.
  16. 16.0 16.1 Template:Cite news
  17. 17.0 17.1 Brophy, John; Culick, Fred; Friedman and al, Louis (12 April 2012). "Asteroid Retrieval Feasibility Study". Keck Institute for Space Studies, California Institute of Technology, Jet Propulsion Laboratory. http://kiss.caltech.edu/study/asteroid/asteroid_final_report.pdf. 
  18. Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP). NASA.
  19. 19.0 19.1 Template:Cite news
  20. 20.0 20.1 Gates, Michele (July 28, 2015). "Asteroid Redirect Mission Update" (PDF). NASA. http://www.nasa.gov/sites/default/files/files/3-20150728-Gates-NAC-HEO-Committee-rev5.pdf. Retrieved 2015-09-06. 
  21. NASA Solar System Exploration, Asteroid Redirect Mission (ARM) (accessed September 30, 2014)
  22. NASA 2014 budget proposal on ARU mission. (PDF)
  23. Steitz, D. "NASA seeks additional information for asteroid redirect mission spacecraft". http://phys.org/news/2015-05-nasa-additional-asteroid-redirect-mission.html. Retrieved 10 Oct 2015. 
  24. Template:Cite journal
  25. Template:Cite news
  26. Template:Cite news
  27. "Companies Selected to Provide Early Design Work for Asteroid Redirect Robotic Mission Spacecraft". NASA. http://www.nasa.gov/feature/companies-selected-to-provide-early-design-work-for-asteroid-redirect-robotic-mission. Retrieved January 30, 2016. 

External linksEdit

YouTube videos

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