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Buzz Aldrin

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<font size="7" color="silver" face="David">'''B'''</font>'''uzz Aldrin''' (born '''Edwin Eugene Aldrin, Jr.''', January 20, 1930) is an American mechanical engineer, retired United States Air Force pilot and [[astronaut]] who was the [[Lunar Module]] pilot on ''[[Apollo 11]]'', the first manned lunar landing in history. On July 20, 1969, he was the second human being to set foot on the [[Moon]], following mission commander [[Neil Armstrong]].
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<font size="7" color="silver" face="David">'''B'''</font>'''uzz Aldrin''' (born '''Edwin Eugene Aldrin, Jr.''', January 20, 1930) is an American mechanical engineer, retired United States Air Force pilot and [[Astronaut|astronaut]] who was the [[Lunar_Module|Lunar Module]] pilot on ''[[Apollo_11|Apollo 11]]'', the first manned lunar landing in history. On July 20, 1969, he was the second human being to set foot on the [[Moon]], following mission commander [[Neil Armstrong]].
 
==Life and career==
 
==Life and career==
   
 
===Military career===
 
===Military career===
Aldrin graduated third in his class at [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/West_Point West Point] in 1951 with a [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bachelor_of_Science Bachelor of Science] in [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mechanical_engineering mechanical engineering]. He was [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Commissioned_officer commissioned] as a [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Lieutenant#United_States Second Lieutenant] in the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Air_Force U.S. Air Force] and served as a jet fighter pilot during the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Korean_War Korean War]. He flew 66 combat missions in [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/F-86_Sabre F-86 Sabres] and shot down two [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mikoyan-Gurevich_MiG-15 Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-15] aircraft. The June 8, 1953, issue of [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Life_magazine ''LIFE''] magazine featured gun camera photos taken by Aldrin of one of the Russian pilots ejecting from his damaged aircraft.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-9" style="line-height: 1em; font-weight: normal; font-style: normal; ">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buzz_Aldrin#cite_note-9 &#91;10&#93;]</sup>
 
   
<p style="margin-top: 0.4em; margin-right: 0px; margin-bottom: 0.5em; margin-left: 0px; line-height: 1.5em;">After the war, Aldrin was assigned as an [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Air_gunner aerial gunnery] instructor at [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nellis_Air_Force_Base Nellis Air Force Base] in [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nevada Nevada], and next was an aide to the dean of faculty at the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Air_Force_Academy U.S. Air Force Academy] (which had recently begun operations in 1955). He flew [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/F-100_Super_Sabre F-100 Super Sabres] as a flight commander at [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bitburg_Air_Base Bitburg Air Base], [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Germany Germany] in the 22nd Fighter Squadron. Aldrin then earned his [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Doctor_of_Science Doctor of Science] in [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Astronautics astronautics] from [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Massachusetts_Institute_of_Technology Massachusetts Institute of Technology]. His [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thesis graduate thesis] was ''[http://hdl.handle.net/1721.1/12652 Line-of-sight guidance techniques for manned orbital rendezvous]''. On completion of his doctorate, he was assigned to the Gemini Target Office of the Air Force Space Systems Division in [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Los_Angeles,_California Los Angeles] before his selection as an astronaut.</p>
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Aldrin graduated third in his class at [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/West_Point West Point] in 1951 with a [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bachelor_of_Science Bachelor of Science] in[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mechanical_engineering mechanical engineering]. He was [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Commissioned_officer commissioned] as a [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Lieutenant#United_States Second Lieutenant] in the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Air_Force U.S. Air Force]and served as a jet fighter pilot during the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Korean_War Korean War]. He flew 66 combat missions in [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/F-86_Sabre F-86 Sabres] and shot down two [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mikoyan-Gurevich_MiG-15 Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-15] aircraft. The June 8, 1953, issue of [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Life_magazine ''LIFE'']magazine featured gun camera photos taken by Aldrin of one of the Russian pilots ejecting from his damaged aircraft.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-9" style="line-height: 1em; font-weight: normal; font-style: normal; ">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buzz_Aldrin#cite_note-9 [10]]</sup>
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<p style="margin-top: 0.4em; margin-right: 0px; margin-bottom: 0.5em; margin-left: 0px; line-height: 1.5em;">After the war, Aldrin was assigned as an [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Air_gunner aerial gunnery] instructor at [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nellis_Air_Force_Base Nellis Air Force Base] in [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nevada Nevada], and next was an aide to the dean of faculty at the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Air_Force_Academy U.S. Air Force Academy] (which had recently begun operations in 1955). He flew [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/F-100_Super_Sabre F-100 Super Sabres] as a flight commander at[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bitburg_Air_Base Bitburg Air Base], [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Germany Germany] in the 22nd Fighter Squadron. Aldrin then earned his [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Doctor_of_Science Doctor of Science] in [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Astronautics astronautics] from [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Massachusetts_Institute_of_Technology Massachusetts Institute of Technology]. His [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Thesis graduate thesis] was ''[http://hdl.handle.net/1721.1/12652 Line-of-sight guidance techniques for manned orbital rendezvous]''. On completion of his doctorate, he was assigned to the Gemini Target Office of the Air Force Space Systems Division in [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Los_Angeles,_California Los Angeles] before his selection as an astronaut.</p>
 
===NASA career===
 
===NASA career===
Aldrin was selected as part of the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Astronaut_Group_3 third group] of [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NASA NASA] astronauts in October 1963. Test pilot experience was no longer a requirement, so this was the first selection that he was eligible for. After the deaths of the original ''Gemini 9'' prime crew, [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elliot_See Elliot See] and [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Bassett Charles Bassett], Aldrin was promoted with [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jim_Lovell Jim Lovell] to back-up crew for the mission. The main objective of the revised mission (''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gemini_9A Gemini 9A]'') was to rendezvous and dock with a target vehicle, but when this failed, Aldrin improvised an effective exercise for the craft to rendezvous with a coordinate in space. He was confirmed as pilot on ''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gemini_12 Gemini 12]'', the last Gemini mission and the last chance to prove methods for [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Extra-vehicular_activity EVA]. Aldrin set a record for extra-vehicular activity and proved that astronauts could work outside spacecraft.
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Aldrin was selected as part of the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Astronaut_Group_3 third group] of [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NASA NASA] astronauts in October 1963. Test pilot experience was no longer a requirement, so this was the first selection that he was eligible for. After the deaths of the original ''Gemini 9'' prime crew, [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elliot_See Elliot See] and [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charles_Bassett Charles Bassett], Aldrin was promoted with [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jim_Lovell Jim Lovell] to back-up crew for the mission. The main objective of the revised mission (''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gemini_9A Gemini 9A]'') was to rendezvous and dock with a target vehicle, but when this failed, Aldrin improvised an effective exercise for the craft to rendezvous with a coordinate in space. He was confirmed as pilot on ''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gemini_12 Gemini 12]'', the last Gemini mission and the last chance to prove methods for[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Extra-vehicular_activity EVA]. Aldrin set a record for extra-vehicular activity and proved that astronauts could work outside spacecraft.
   
 
Aldrin's lunar footprint in a photo taken by him on July 20, 1969
 
Aldrin's lunar footprint in a photo taken by him on July 20, 1969
<p style="margin-top: 0.4em; margin-right: 0px; margin-bottom: 0.5em; margin-left: 0px; line-height: 1.5em;">On July 20, 1969, he was the second astronaut to walk on the moon and the first to have also spacewalked, keeping his record total EVA time until that was surpassed on ''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_14 Apollo 14]''. There has been much speculation about Aldrin's desire at the time to be the first astronaut to walk on the moon.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-10" style="line-height: 1em; font-weight: normal; font-style: normal; ">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buzz_Aldrin#cite_note-10 &#91;11&#93;]</sup> According to different NASA accounts, he had originally been proposed as the first to step onto the Moon's surface, but due to the physical positioning of the astronauts inside the compact Lunar Landing Module, it was easier for the commander, Neil Armstrong, to be the first to exit the spacecraft. There was also a desire on NASA's part for the first person to step onto the Moon's surface be a civilian, which Armstrong was.</p>
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<p style="margin-top: 0.4em; margin-right: 0px; margin-bottom: 0.5em; margin-left: 0px; line-height: 1.5em;">On July 20, 1969, he was the second astronaut to walk on the moon and the first to have also spacewalked, keeping his record total EVA time until that was surpassed on ''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_14 Apollo 14]''. There has been much speculation about Aldrin's desire at the time to be the first astronaut to walk on the moon.<sup class="reference" id="cite_ref-10" style="line-height: 1em; font-weight: normal; font-style: normal; ">[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buzz_Aldrin#cite_note-10 [11]]</sup> According to different NASA accounts, he had originally been proposed as the first to step onto the Moon's surface, but due to the physical positioning of the astronauts inside the compact Lunar Landing Module, it was easier for the commander, Neil Armstrong, to be the first to exit the spacecraft. There was also a desire on NASA's part for the first person to step onto the Moon's surface be a civilian, which Armstrong was.</p>
   
<p style="margin-top: 0.4em; margin-right: 0px; margin-bottom: 0.5em; margin-left: 0px; line-height: 1.5em;">Buzz Aldrin was the first person to hold a religious ceremony on the Moon. Aldrin is, as he was, a [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Presbyterian_Church_USA Presbyterian]. After landing on the moon, Aldrin radioed Earth: "I'd like to take this opportunity to ask every person listening in, whoever and wherever they may be, to pause for a moment and contemplate the events of the past few hours, and to give thanks in his or her own way." He gave himself [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eucharist Communion] on the surface of the Moon, but he kept it secret because of a lawsuit brought by atheist activist [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Madalyn_Murray_O%27Hair Madalyn Murray O'Hair] over the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_8_Genesis_reading reading of Genesis] on [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_8 Apollo 8]. Aldrin, a church elder, used a pastor's home Communion kit given to him by [http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Dean_Woodruff&action=edit&redlink=1 Dean Woodruff] and recited words used by his pastor at Webster Presbyterian Church.Webster Presbyterian Church, a local congregation in [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Webster,_Texas Webster, Texas], (a [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Houston Houston] suburb near the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Johnson_Space_Center Johnson Space Center]) possesses the chalice used for communion on the moon, and commemorates the event annually on the Sunday closest to July 20.Aldrin, a [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Freemason Freemason], also carried to the Moon a special deputization from Grand Master J. Guy Smith, with which to claim Masonic territorial jurisdiction over the Moon on behalf of the Grand Lodge of Texas.</p>
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<p style="margin-top: 0.4em; margin-right: 0px; margin-bottom: 0.5em; margin-left: 0px; line-height: 1.5em;">Buzz Aldrin was the first person to hold a religious ceremony on the Moon. Aldrin is, as he was, a[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Presbyterian_Church_USA Presbyterian]. After landing on the moon, Aldrin radioed Earth: "I'd like to take this opportunity to ask every person listening in, whoever and wherever they may be, to pause for a moment and contemplate the events of the past few hours, and to give thanks in his or her own way." He gave himself [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eucharist Communion] on the surface of the Moon, but he kept it secret because of a lawsuit brought by atheist activist [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Madalyn_Murray_O%27Hair Madalyn Murray O'Hair]over the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_8_Genesis_reading reading of Genesis] on [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apollo_8 Apollo 8]. Aldrin, a church elder, used a pastor's home Communion kit given to him by [http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Dean_Woodruff&action=edit&redlink=1 Dean Woodruff] and recited words used by his pastor at Webster Presbyterian Church.Webster Presbyterian Church, a local congregation in [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Webster,_Texas Webster, Texas], (a [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Houston Houston] suburb near the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Johnson_Space_Center Johnson Space Center]) possesses the chalice used for communion on the moon, and commemorates the event annually on the Sunday closest to July 20.Aldrin, a [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Freemason Freemason], also carried to the Moon a special deputization from Grand Master J. Guy Smith, with which to claim Masonic territorial jurisdiction over the Moon on behalf of the Grand Lodge of Texas.</p>
 
===Retirement===
 
===Retirement===
After leaving NASA, Aldrin was assigned as the Commandant of the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/U.S._Air_Force_Test_Pilot_School U.S. Air Force Test Pilot School] at [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edwards_Air_Force_Base Edwards Air Force Base], California. In March 1972, Aldrin retired from active duty after 21 years of service, and returned to the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Air_Force Air Force] in a managerial role, but his career was blighted by personal problems. His autobiographies ''Return To Earth,'' published in 1973, and ''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnificent_Desolation_(book) Magnificent Desolation],'' published in June 2009, both provide accounts of his struggles with [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clinical_depression clinical depression] and [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alcoholism alcoholism] in the years following his NASA career. His life improved considerably when he recognized and sought treatment for his problems, and with his marriage to Lois Aldrin. Since retiring from NASA, he has continued to promote space exploration, including producing a computer strategy game called ''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buzz_Aldrin%27s_Race_Into_Space Buzz Aldrin's Race Into Space]''(1993). To further promote space exploration, and to commemorate the 40th anniversary of the first lunar landing, Buzz teamed up with [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Snoop_Dogg Snoop Dogg], [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quincy_Jones Quincy Jones], [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Talib_Kweli Talib Kweli], and [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soulja_Boy Soulja Boy] to create the rap single and video, "Rocket Experience". Proceeds from video and song sales will benefit Buzz's non-profit foundation, ShareSpace. In 1995, he made a featured appearance in the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlton_Heston Charlton Heston], [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mickey_Rooney Mickey Rooney],[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deborah_Winters Deborah Winters] film ''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/America:_A_Call_to_Greatness America: A Call to Greatness]'', directed by [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Warren_Chaney Warren Chaney].
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After leaving NASA, Aldrin was assigned as the Commandant of the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/U.S._Air_Force_Test_Pilot_School U.S. Air Force Test Pilot School] at[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edwards_Air_Force_Base Edwards Air Force Base], California. In March 1972, Aldrin retired from active duty after 21 years of service, and returned to the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Air_Force Air Force] in a managerial role, but his career was blighted by personal problems. His autobiographies ''Return To Earth,'' published in 1973, and ''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Magnificent_Desolation_(book) Magnificent Desolation],'' published in June 2009, both provide accounts of his struggles with [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clinical_depression clinical depression] and [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Alcoholism alcoholism] in the years following his NASA career. His life improved considerably when he recognized and sought treatment for his problems, and with his marriage to Lois Aldrin. Since retiring from NASA, he has continued to promote space exploration, including producing a computer strategy game called ''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Buzz_Aldrin%27s_Race_Into_Space Buzz Aldrin's Race Into Space]''(1993). To further promote space exploration, and to commemorate the 40th anniversary of the first lunar landing, Buzz teamed up with [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Snoop_Dogg Snoop Dogg], [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quincy_Jones Quincy Jones], [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Talib_Kweli Talib Kweli], and [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Soulja_Boy Soulja Boy] to create the rap single and video, "Rocket Experience". Proceeds from video and song sales will benefit Buzz's non-profit foundation, ShareSpace. In 1995, he made a featured appearance in the [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Charlton_Heston Charlton Heston], [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mickey_Rooney Mickey Rooney],[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Deborah_Winters Deborah Winters] film ''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/America:_A_Call_to_Greatness America: A Call to Greatness]'', directed by [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Warren_Chaney Warren Chaney].
   
 
<p style="margin-top: 0.4em; margin-right: 0px; margin-bottom: 0.5em; margin-left: 0px; line-height: 1.5em;">He referred to a "[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phobos_monolith Phobos monolith]" in a July 22, 2009, interview with [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/C-Span C-Span]: "We should go boldly where man has not gone before. Fly by the comets, visit asteroids, visit the moon of Mars. There's a monolith there. A very unusual structure on this potato shaped object that goes around Mars once in seven hours. When people find out about that they're going to say 'Who put that there? Who put that there?' The universe put it there. If you choose, God put it there…"</p>
 
<p style="margin-top: 0.4em; margin-right: 0px; margin-bottom: 0.5em; margin-left: 0px; line-height: 1.5em;">He referred to a "[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phobos_monolith Phobos monolith]" in a July 22, 2009, interview with [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/C-Span C-Span]: "We should go boldly where man has not gone before. Fly by the comets, visit asteroids, visit the moon of Mars. There's a monolith there. A very unusual structure on this potato shaped object that goes around Mars once in seven hours. When people find out about that they're going to say 'Who put that there? Who put that there?' The universe put it there. If you choose, God put it there…"</p>
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<p style="margin-top: 0.4em; margin-right: 0px; margin-bottom: 0.5em; margin-left: 0px; line-height: 1.5em;">He voiced in 2011 Futurama episode "[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cold_Warriors Cold Warriors]" as himself judging a high school science fair.</p>
 
<p style="margin-top: 0.4em; margin-right: 0px; margin-bottom: 0.5em; margin-left: 0px; line-height: 1.5em;">He voiced in 2011 Futurama episode "[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cold_Warriors Cold Warriors]" as himself judging a high school science fair.</p>
 
===Criticism of NASA===
 
===Criticism of NASA===
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In December 2003, Aldrin published in ''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_New_York_Times The New York Times]'' an article criticizing NASA's objectives. In it, he voiced concern about NASA's development of a [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orion_(Constellation_program) spacecraft] "limited to transporting four astronauts at a time with little or no cargo carrying capability" and declared the goal of sending astronauts back to the moon was "more like reaching for past glory than striving for new triumphs".
 
In December 2003, Aldrin published in ''[http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_New_York_Times The New York Times]'' an article criticizing NASA's objectives. In it, he voiced concern about NASA's development of a [http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orion_(Constellation_program) spacecraft] "limited to transporting four astronauts at a time with little or no cargo carrying capability" and declared the goal of sending astronauts back to the moon was "more like reaching for past glory than striving for new triumphs".
 
[[Category:Life after space]]
 
[[Category:Life after space]]
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