Ilan Ramon (Template:Lang-he-n, born Ilan Wolferman; June 20, 1954 – February 1, 2003)[1] was an Israeli fighter pilot and later the first Israeli astronaut for NASA.

Ramon was the space shuttle payload specialist of STS-107, the fatal mission of Columbia, in which he and six other crew members were killed in the re-entry accident. At 48, he was the oldest member of the crew. Ramon is the only foreign recipient of the United States Congressional Space Medal of Honor, which he was awarded posthumously.


Ramon was born in Ramat Gan, Israel, to Tonya (1929–2003) and Eliezer Wolferman (1923–2006). He grew up in Beersheba. His father was from Germany, and his family fled Nazi persecution in 1935. His mother and grandmother were from Poland, and were Holocaust survivors, having been in Auschwitz. They immigrated to Israel in 1949.[2] His first name, Ilan, means "tree" in Hebrew.[3] Ilan changed his last name from Wolferman when he joined the IAF, as did many other Israeli aviators.[citation needed]

Ramon graduated from high school in 1972. In 1987, he graduated with a B.Sc. degree in electronics and computer engineering from Tel Aviv University.[4]

Air Force careerEdit


F-16A Netz 243 flown by Ilan Ramon in Operation Opera

IAF F-16A Netz 243 kill marks

The jet features the triangular emblem of the attack on Osirak, and a Syrian Air Force roundel 'killmark'.

Ilan Ramon was a Colonel (Aluf Mishne) and a fighter pilot in the Israeli Air Force, with thousands of hours of flying experience. In 1974, he graduated as a fighter pilot from the Israel Air Force (IAF) Flight School. From 1974–76 he participated in A-4 Basic Training and Operations. 1976–80 was spent in Mirage III-C training and operations. In 1980, as one of the IAF's establishment team of the first F-16 Squadron in Israel, he attended the F-16 Training Course at Hill Air Force Base, Utah. From 1981–83, he served as the Deputy Squadron Commander B, F-16 Squadron.[4]

In 1981 he was the youngest pilot taking part in Operation Opera, Israel's strike against Iraq's unfinished Osiraq nuclear reactor. The facility was destroyed, killing ten Iraqi soldiers and one French researcher.[5][6]

After attending the Tel Aviv University, he served as Deputy Squadron Commander A, 119 Squadron, flying the F-4 Phantom (1988–90). During 1990, he attended the Squadron Commanders Course and between 1990 and 1992, commanded 117 Squadron, flying the F-16. From 1992–94, he was Head of the Aircraft Branch in the Operations Requirement Department. In 1994, he was promoted to the rank of Colonel and assigned as Head of the Department of Operational Requirement for Weapon Development and Acquisition. He stayed at this post until 1998.

Ramon accumulated over 3,000 flight hours on the A-4, Mirage III-C, and F-4, and over 1,000 flight hours on the F-16.[7]

NASA experienceEdit

Ilan Ramon

Payload specialist Ilan Ramon

NASA on-ground trainingsEdit

In 1997, Ramon was selected as a Payload Specialist. He was designated to train as prime for a space shuttle mission with a payload that included a multispectral camera for recording desert aerosol (dust). In July 1998, he reported for training at the Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas, where he trained until 2003. He flew aboard STS-107, logging 15 days, 22 hours and 20 minutes in space.

Space flight; STS-107 is ColumbiaEdit

Ilan ramon sts-107

Ramon photographed aboard Columbia on January 26, 2003

STS-107 Columbia (January 16 – February 1, 2003). The 16-day flight was a dedicated science and research mission. Working 24 hours a day, in two alternating shifts, crew successfully conducted approximately 80 experiments.

Although considered a secular Jew, Ramon reportedly sought to follow Jewish observances while in orbit. In an interview he said, "I feel I am representing all Jews and all Israelis." He was the first spaceflight participant to request kosher food. He reportedly sought advice from a Chabad Lubavitch rabbi, Zvi Konikov, about how to observe the Jewish Sabbath in space, as the period between sunrises in orbit is approximately 90 minutes. This was referenced by the words "Jerusalem we have a problem" in Rabbi Konikov's speech at the Kennedy Space Center Memorial for Columbia on February 7, 2003.[8]

The STS-107 mission ended abruptly when Space Shuttle Columbia was destroyed and its crew perished during re-entry, 16 minutes before scheduled landing.

Ramon, whose mother and grandmother were survivors of Auschwitz, was asked by S. Isaac Mekel, director of development at the American Society for Yad Vashem, to take an item from Yad Vashem aboard STS-107. Ramon carried with him a pencil sketch, "Moon Landscape", drawn by 16-year-old Petr Ginz, who died in Auschwitz. Ramon also took with him a microfiche copy of the Torah given to him by Israeli president Moshe Katsav and a miniature Torah scroll (from the Holocaust) that was given him by Prof. Yehoyachin Yosef, a Bergen Belsen survivor.[9] Ramon asked the 1939 Club, a Holocaust survivor organization in Los Angeles, for a symbol of the Holocaust to take into outer space with him. A barbed wire mezuzah by the San Francisco artist Aimee Golant was selected. Ramon also took with him a dollar of the Lubavitcher Rebbe, Rabbi Menachem M. Schneerson.[10] Ramon and the rest of the Columbia crew died over East Texas in the Southern United States during entry into Earth's atmosphere, 16 minutes prior to scheduled landing. [4] On November 10, 2013, the American Society for Yad Vashem held a special event with the participation of Petr Ginz's nephew and Ramon's son Tal, who performed a song he wrote in memory of his father.


37 pages from the diary he was keeping while in orbit survived the crash and were returned to his widow, Rona, who has shared an excerpt with the Israeli public in a display at Jerusalem's Israel Museum.[11] Rona Ramon brought it to Israel Museum forensic experts. Only two pages were displayed, one containing Ramon's notes, and the other is a copy of the Kiddush prayer.[11] Curator Yigal Zalmona[12] said the diary was partially restored in one year, and needed four more, for police scientists to decipher 80% of the text. Zalmona stated: "The diary survived extreme heat in the explosion, extreme atmospheric cold, and then "was attacked by microorganisms and insects. It's almost a miracle that it survived — it's incredible. There is 'no rational explanation' for how it was recovered when most of the shuttle was not, he said."[11] Ramon wrote on the last day of the journal:

"Today was the first day that I felt that I am truly living in space. I have become a man who lives and works in space."

Inscribed in black ink and pencil, it covered the first six days of the 16-day mission. The papers remained white even though, exposed at high speed 37 miles (Template:Convert/round km) above the Earth, they should have burned.[13] Other fragile items withstood the disaster as well, like a Caenorhabditis elegans worm culture,[14][15][16] and a damaged hard disk drive.[17][18] This is a common occurrence in the debris trail of air disasters, where parts or objects in the aircraft are blown out of the vehicle and fall freely; when the Columbia disintegrated, it was already an aircraft (if exceptionally high and fast) rather than a spacecraft.


Ramon was survived by his wife Rona and their four children, who were in Florida at the time of the accident.

Assaf RamonEdit

His eldest son, Assaf Ramon, died on September 13, 2009, aged 21, during a routine training flight while piloting his F-16A, 3 months after graduating from the IAF flight school Hatzerim Airbase as the top cadet in his class.[19][20][21][22] Ramon was considered an excellent pilot.[23] A lieutenant of the Israeli Air Force, he was posthumously promoted to captain.[23]

Awards and honorsEdit



Ilan Ramon's grave in Nahalal

All namesakes are in Israel unless specified otherwise:

See alsoEdit


  1. Template:Cite book
  2. Template:Cite news
  3. Mike Campbell. "Ilan". Retrieved September 1, 2011. 
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 "Payload Specialist Astronaut Bio: Ilan Ramon, National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)". Retrieved September 1, 2011. 
  5. Template:Cite news
  6. Template:Cite news
  7. "Ibid". Retrieved September 1, 2011. 
  8. Konikov, Zvi. "official website". Retrieved September 1, 2011. 
  9. Template:Cite book
  10. Template:Cite news
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 Template:Cite news
  12. Template:Cite news
  13. Template:Cite news
  14. Szewczyk, Nathaniel (2005). "Caenorhabditis elegans Survives Atmospheric Breakup of STS-107, Space Shuttle Columbia". Mary Ann Liebert, Astrobiology. Retrieved November 2, 2006. 
  15. Template:Cite news
  16. Worms Survive Shuttle Disaster Fall 2003
  17. Fonseca, Brian (May 7, 2008). "Shuttle Columbia's hard drive data recovered from crash site". Retrieved September 1, 2009. 
  18. "The Physics of Whipped Cream". Retrieved September 1, 2009. 
  19. Template:Cite news
  20. Template:Cite news
  21. Death of Ilan Ramon's son, Asaf Ramon (hebrew)
  22. Template:Cite news
  23. 23.0 23.1 Template:Cite news
  24. "Congressional Space Medal of Honor". NASA. April 28, 2006. Retrieved December 5, 2009. 
  25. Template:Cite news
  26. Template:Cite news
  27. Ilan Ramon Junior High, Kochav-Yair
  28. Shoshana Poznansky (May 7, 2007). "UJA Foundation: Lag B'omer festival". Retrieved September 1, 2011. 
  29. UJA Foundation at the Wayback Machine (archived May 15, 2008)

External linksEdit

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