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(External links: Remove some templates, interwiki links, and cleanup, replaced: ==References== {{Reflist|30em}} ==External links== {{Commons|Category:InSight}} *[http://www.nasa.gov/insight/ ''InSight''] at NASA.gov *[http://insight.jpl.nasa....)
 
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| dry_mass =
 
| dry_mass =
 
| dimensions = Deployed: {{convert|20|xx|6.5|xx|4.5|ft|m|order=flip|abbr=on}}<ref name="insight-litho"/>
 
| dimensions = Deployed: {{convert|20|xx|6.5|xx|4.5|ft|m|order=flip|abbr=on}}<ref name="insight-litho"/>
| power = 450 [[Watt|W]], [[Photovoltaic system|solar]]{{\}}[[Lithium-ion battery|Li-ion battery]]
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| power = 450 W, [[Photovoltaic system|solar]]{{\}}[[Lithium-ion battery|Li-ion battery]]
   
 
| launch_date = {{start-date|5 May 2018}}<ref name="sfnow20160309"/>
 
| launch_date = {{start-date|5 May 2018}}<ref name="sfnow20160309"/>
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<!--{{end-date|}}&nbsp;UTC-->
 
<!--{{end-date|}}&nbsp;UTC-->
   
|interplanetary =
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|interplanetary ={{Infobox spaceflight/IP
{{Infobox spaceflight/IP
 
 
|type = lander
 
|type = lander
 
|object = [[Mars]]
 
|object = [[Mars]]
 
|arrival_date = 26 November 2018<ref name="nytimes20160309"/>
 
|arrival_date = 26 November 2018<ref name="nytimes20160309"/>
 
|location = [[Elysium Planitia]]<ref name="landing"/><ref>{{cite news |url=http://insight.jpl.nasa.gov/newsdisplay.cfm?Subsite_News_ID=37592 |title=Single Site on Mars Advanced for 2016 NASA Lander |publisher=NASA |date=4 March 2015 |accessdate=16 December 2015}}</ref> <br /> {{Coord|4|N|136|E|globe:Mars|name=InSight landing site}}
 
|location = [[Elysium Planitia]]<ref name="landing"/><ref>{{cite news |url=http://insight.jpl.nasa.gov/newsdisplay.cfm?Subsite_News_ID=37592 |title=Single Site on Mars Advanced for 2016 NASA Lander |publisher=NASA |date=4 March 2015 |accessdate=16 December 2015}}</ref> <br /> {{Coord|4|N|136|E|globe:Mars|name=InSight landing site}}
}}
+
}}
   
| instruments_list = {{Infobox spaceflight/Instruments
+
| instruments_list ={{Infobox spaceflight/Instruments
 
| acronym1 = SEIS | name1 = Seismic Experiment for Interior Structure
 
| acronym1 = SEIS | name1 = Seismic Experiment for Interior Structure
 
| acronym2 = HP<sup>3</sup> | name2 = Heat Flow and PHysical Properties Package
 
| acronym2 = HP<sup>3</sup> | name2 = Heat Flow and PHysical Properties Package
 
| acronym3 = RISE | name3 = Rotation and Interior Structure Experiment
 
| acronym3 = RISE | name3 = Rotation and Interior Structure Experiment
}}
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}}
   
 
| programme = [[Discovery program]]
 
| programme = [[Discovery program]]
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}}
 
}}
   
'''''InSight''''' is a [[robotic spacecraft|robotic]] Mars [[lander (spacecraft)|lander]] manufactured in the 2010s which was originally planned for launch in March 2016.<ref name=washington>{{cite news |url=http://www.washingtonpost.com/national/health-science/nasa-will-send-robot-drill-to-mars-in-2016/2012/08/20/43bf1980-eaef-11e1-9ddc-340d5efb1e9c_story.html |title=NASA will send robot drill to Mars in 2016 |work=[[The Washington Post]] |first=Brian |last=Vastag |date=20 August 2012}}</ref> The name is a [[backronym]] for '''In'''terior Exploration using '''S'''eismic '''I'''nvestigations, '''G'''eodesy and '''H'''eat '''T'''ransport.<ref name='overview'/> Due to the failure of its SEIS instrument prior to launch, NASA announced in December 2015 that the mission had been postponed, and in March 2016, launch was rescheduled for 5 May 2018.
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'''''InSight''''' is a [[robotic spacecraft|robotic]] Mars [[lander (spacecraft)|lander]] manufactured in the 2010s which was originally planned for launch in March 2016.<ref name=washington>{{cite news |url=http://www.washingtonpost.com/national/health-science/nasa-will-send-robot-drill-to-mars-in-2016/2012/08/20/43bf1980-eaef-11e1-9ddc-340d5efb1e9c_story.html |title=NASA will send robot drill to Mars in 2016 |work=The Washington Post |first=Brian |last=Vastag |date=20 August 2012}}</ref> The name is a [[backronym]] for '''In'''terior Exploration using '''S'''eismic '''I'''nvestigations, '''G'''eodesy and '''H'''eat '''T'''ransport.<ref name='overview'/> Due to the failure of its SEIS instrument prior to launch, NASA announced in December 2015 that the mission had been postponed, and in March 2016, launch was rescheduled for 5 May 2018.
   
 
The mission's objective is to place a stationary [[Mars landing|lander]] equipped with a [[seismometer]] and [[heat transfer]] probe on the surface of Mars to study its early geological evolution. This would bring new understanding of the Solar System's [[terrestrial planet]]s — [[Mercury (planet)|Mercury]], [[Venus]], [[Earth]], [[Mars]] — and Earth’s [[Moon]]. By reusing technology from the Mars [[Phoenix (spacecraft)|''Phoenix'' lander]], which successfully landed on Mars in 2008, it is expected that the cost and risk will be reduced.<ref name='overview'/>
 
The mission's objective is to place a stationary [[Mars landing|lander]] equipped with a [[seismometer]] and [[heat transfer]] probe on the surface of Mars to study its early geological evolution. This would bring new understanding of the Solar System's [[terrestrial planet]]s — [[Mercury (planet)|Mercury]], [[Venus]], [[Earth]], [[Mars]] — and Earth’s [[Moon]]. By reusing technology from the Mars [[Phoenix (spacecraft)|''Phoenix'' lander]], which successfully landed on Mars in 2008, it is expected that the cost and risk will be reduced.<ref name='overview'/>
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NASA began construction of the lander on 19 May 2014,<ref name="NASA-20140519">{{cite web |last=Webster |first=Guy |last2=Brown |first2=Dwayne |last3=Napier |first3=Gary |title=Construction to Begin on 2016 NASA Mars Lander |url=http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/news.php?release=2014-156&1 |date=19 May 2014 |work=[[NASA]] |accessdate=20 May 2014}}</ref> with general testing starting in 27 May 2015.<ref name="NASA-20150527">{{cite web |last1=Webster |first1=Guy |last2=Brown |first2=Dwayne |title=NASA Begins Testing Mars Lander for Next Mission to Red Planet |url=http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/news.php?feature=4601 |date=27 May 2015 |work=[[NASA]] |accessdate=28 May 2015}}</ref>
 
NASA began construction of the lander on 19 May 2014,<ref name="NASA-20140519">{{cite web |last=Webster |first=Guy |last2=Brown |first2=Dwayne |last3=Napier |first3=Gary |title=Construction to Begin on 2016 NASA Mars Lander |url=http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/news.php?release=2014-156&1 |date=19 May 2014 |work=[[NASA]] |accessdate=20 May 2014}}</ref> with general testing starting in 27 May 2015.<ref name="NASA-20150527">{{cite web |last1=Webster |first1=Guy |last2=Brown |first2=Dwayne |title=NASA Begins Testing Mars Lander for Next Mission to Red Planet |url=http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/news.php?feature=4601 |date=27 May 2015 |work=[[NASA]] |accessdate=28 May 2015}}</ref>
   
A persistent vacuum leak in the French seismometer known as the Seismic Experiment for Interior Structure (SEIS) led NASA to postpone the planned launch in March 2016 to November 2018. NASA's [[Jet Propulsion Laboratory]] will take over development of the vacuum container for SEIS, with France's space agency, [[CNES]], handling instrument integration and test activities.<ref name="2nd chance">{{cite news |last=Foust |first=Jeff |url=http://www.thespacereview.com/article/2953/1 |title=InSight’s second chance |work=The Space Review |date=28 March 2016 |accessdate=2016-04-05 }}</ref>
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A persistent vacuum leak in the French seismometer known as the Seismic Experiment for Interior Structure (SEIS) led NASA to postpone the planned launch in March 2016 to November 2018. NASA's [[Jet Propulsion Laboratory]] will take over development of the vacuum container for SEIS, with France's space agency, [[CNES]], handling instrument integration and test activities.<ref name="2nd chance">{{cite news |last=Foust |first=Jeff |url=http://www.thespacereview.com/article/2953/1 |title=InSight’s second chance |work=The Space Review |date=28 March 2016 |accessdate=2016-04-05}}</ref>
   
 
===Status===
 
===Status===
 
The ''InSight'' spacecraft has been returned to Lockheed Martin's factory in Colorado for storage, and the Atlas V rocket intended to launch the spacecraft has been reassigned to the [[WorldView-4]] mission.<ref name="sfnow20160305">{{cite news |url=https://spaceflightnow.com/2016/03/05/fate-of-nasas-insight-mars-mission-to-be-decided-soon/ |title=Fate of NASA's InSight Mars mission to be decided soon |work=Spaceflight Now |first=Stephen |last=Clark |date=5 March 2016 |accessdate=9 March 2016}}</ref>
 
The ''InSight'' spacecraft has been returned to Lockheed Martin's factory in Colorado for storage, and the Atlas V rocket intended to launch the spacecraft has been reassigned to the [[WorldView-4]] mission.<ref name="sfnow20160305">{{cite news |url=https://spaceflightnow.com/2016/03/05/fate-of-nasas-insight-mars-mission-to-be-decided-soon/ |title=Fate of NASA's InSight Mars mission to be decided soon |work=Spaceflight Now |first=Stephen |last=Clark |date=5 March 2016 |accessdate=9 March 2016}}</ref>
   
NASA officials announced on 9 March 2016 that ''InSight'' is not planned for cancellation, but would instead be delayed until the 2018 launch window at an estimated cost of {{US$|150 million}}.<ref name="sfnow20160309">{{cite news |url=https://spaceflightnow.com/2016/03/09/insight-mars-lander-escapes-cancellation-aims-for-2018-launch/ |title=InSight Mars lander escapes cancellation, aims for 2018 launch |work=Spaceflight Now |first=Stephen |last=Clark |date=9 March 2016 |accessdate=9 March 2016}}</ref><ref name="nytimes20160309">{{cite news |url=http://www.nytimes.com/2016/03/10/science/nasa-reschedules-mars-insight-mission-for-may-2018.html |title=NASA Reschedules Mars InSight Mission for May 2018 |work=[[The New York Times]] |first=Kenneth |last=Chang |date=9 March 2016 |accessdate=9 March 2016}}</ref> The spacecraft is scheduled to launch on 5 May 2018 for a Mars landing on 26 November; the flight plan remains unchanged, and launch will take place aboard an Atlas V rocket from Vandenberg Air Force Base.<ref name="sfnow20160309"/><ref name="nytimes20160309"/> NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory has been tasked with redesigning and building a new vacuum enclosure for the SEIS instrument, while CNES will conduct instrument integration and testing.<ref name="2nd chance"/><ref name="nasa20160309">{{cite web |url=http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/news.php?feature=5746 |title=NASA Targets May 2018 Launch of Mars InSight Mission |publisher=NASA |date=9 March 2016 |accessdate=9 March 2016}}</ref>
+
NASA officials announced on 9 March 2016 that ''InSight'' is not planned for cancellation, but would instead be delayed until the 2018 launch window at an estimated cost of {{US$|150 million}}.<ref name="sfnow20160309">{{cite news |url=https://spaceflightnow.com/2016/03/09/insight-mars-lander-escapes-cancellation-aims-for-2018-launch/ |title=InSight Mars lander escapes cancellation, aims for 2018 launch |work=Spaceflight Now |first=Stephen |last=Clark |date=9 March 2016 |accessdate=9 March 2016}}</ref><ref name="nytimes20160309">{{cite news |url=http://www.nytimes.com/2016/03/10/science/nasa-reschedules-mars-insight-mission-for-may-2018.html |title=NASA Reschedules Mars InSight Mission for May 2018 |work=The New York Times |first=Kenneth |last=Chang |date=9 March 2016 |accessdate=9 March 2016}}</ref> The spacecraft is scheduled to launch on 5 May 2018 for a Mars landing on 26 November; the flight plan remains unchanged, and launch will take place aboard an Atlas V rocket from Vandenberg Air Force Base.<ref name="sfnow20160309"/><ref name="nytimes20160309"/> NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory has been tasked with redesigning and building a new vacuum enclosure for the SEIS instrument, while CNES will conduct instrument integration and testing.<ref name="2nd chance"/><ref name="nasa20160309">{{cite web |url=http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/news.php?feature=5746 |title=NASA Targets May 2018 Launch of Mars InSight Mission |publisher=NASA |date=9 March 2016 |accessdate=9 March 2016}}</ref>
   
 
==Objectives==
 
==Objectives==
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''InSight''{{'s}} primary objective is to study the earliest evolutionary history of the processes that shaped Mars. By studying the size, thickness, density and overall structure of Mars' core, mantle and crust, as well as the rate at which heat escapes from the planet's interior, ''InSight'' will provide a glimpse into the evolutionary processes of all of the rocky planets in the inner Solar System.<ref name="missionpg" /> The rocky inner planets share a common ancestry that begins with a process called [[Accretion (astrophysics)|accretion]]. As the body increases in size, its interior heats up and evolves to become a terrestrial planet, containing a core, mantle and crust.<ref name="ISScience">{{cite web |title=InSight: Science |url=http://insight.jpl.nasa.gov/science/ |work=Mission Website |publisher=NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory |accessdate=2 December 2011}}</ref> Despite this common ancestry, each of the terrestrial planets is later shaped and molded through a poorly understood process called [[Planetary differentiation|differentiation]]. ''InSight'' mission's goal is to improve understanding of this process and, by extension, terrestrial evolution, by measuring the planetary building blocks shaped by differentiation: a terrestrial planet's core, mantle and crust.<ref name="ISScience"/>
 
''InSight''{{'s}} primary objective is to study the earliest evolutionary history of the processes that shaped Mars. By studying the size, thickness, density and overall structure of Mars' core, mantle and crust, as well as the rate at which heat escapes from the planet's interior, ''InSight'' will provide a glimpse into the evolutionary processes of all of the rocky planets in the inner Solar System.<ref name="missionpg" /> The rocky inner planets share a common ancestry that begins with a process called [[Accretion (astrophysics)|accretion]]. As the body increases in size, its interior heats up and evolves to become a terrestrial planet, containing a core, mantle and crust.<ref name="ISScience">{{cite web |title=InSight: Science |url=http://insight.jpl.nasa.gov/science/ |work=Mission Website |publisher=NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory |accessdate=2 December 2011}}</ref> Despite this common ancestry, each of the terrestrial planets is later shaped and molded through a poorly understood process called [[Planetary differentiation|differentiation]]. ''InSight'' mission's goal is to improve understanding of this process and, by extension, terrestrial evolution, by measuring the planetary building blocks shaped by differentiation: a terrestrial planet's core, mantle and crust.<ref name="ISScience"/>
   
The mission will determine if there is any [[Earthquake|seismic activity]], measure the amount of heat flow from the interior, estimate the size of Mars' [[Planetary core|core]] and whether the core is liquid or solid.<ref>{{cite news |first=Ken |last=Kremer |title=NASAs Proposed 'InSight' Lander would Peer to the Center of Mars in 2016 |date=2 March 2012 |url=http://www.universetoday.com/93843/nasas-proposed-insight-lander-would-peer-to-the-center-of-mars-in-2016/ |work=Universe Today |accessdate=27 March 2012}}</ref> This data would be the first of its kind on Mars.<ref name=bb13/> The mission's secondary objective is to conduct an in-depth study of [[geophysics]], [[Tectonics|tectonic activity]] and the effect of [[Impact event|meteorite impacts]] on Mars, which could provide knowledge about such processes on Earth. Crust thickness, mantle velocity, core radius and density, and seismic activity should experience a measured accuracy increase on the order 3X to 10X compared to current data.<ref name=bb13/>
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The mission will determine if there is any seismic activity, measure the amount of heat flow from the interior, estimate the size of Mars' [[Planetary core|core]] and whether the core is liquid or solid.<ref>{{cite news |first=Ken |last=Kremer |title=NASAs Proposed 'InSight' Lander would Peer to the Center of Mars in 2016 |date=2 March 2012 |url=http://www.universetoday.com/93843/nasas-proposed-insight-lander-would-peer-to-the-center-of-mars-in-2016/ |work=Universe Today |accessdate=27 March 2012}}</ref> This data would be the first of its kind on Mars.<ref name=bb13/> The mission's secondary objective is to conduct an in-depth study of [[geophysics]], [[Tectonics|tectonic activity]] and the effect of [[Impact event|meteorite impacts]] on Mars, which could provide knowledge about such processes on Earth. Crust thickness, mantle velocity, core radius and density, and seismic activity should experience a measured accuracy increase on the order 3X to 10X compared to current data.<ref name=bb13/>
   
 
In terms of fundamental processes shaping planetary formation, Mars contains the most in-depth and accurate historical record, because it is big enough to have undergone the earliest [[Accretion (astrophysics)|accretion]] and internal heating processes that shaped the terrestrial planets, but small enough to have retained signs of those processes.<ref name="missionpg" />
 
In terms of fundamental processes shaping planetary formation, Mars contains the most in-depth and accurate historical record, because it is big enough to have undergone the earliest [[Accretion (astrophysics)|accretion]] and internal heating processes that shaped the terrestrial planets, but small enough to have retained signs of those processes.<ref name="missionpg" />
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''InSight''{{'s}} science [[payload (air and space craft)|payload]] will consist of two main instruments:
 
''InSight''{{'s}} science [[payload (air and space craft)|payload]] will consist of two main instruments:
 
*The '''Seismic Experiment for Interior Structure''' (SEIS) will take precise measurements of quakes and other internal activity on Mars to better understand the planet's history and structure. It will also investigate how the Martian crust and mantle respond to the effects of meteorite impacts, which gives clues to the planet's inner structure.<ref>{{cite news |author=Staff |title=NASA and French Space Agency Sign Agreement for Mars Mission |date=10 February 2014 |work=[[NASA]] |url=http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/news.php?release=2014-043 |accessdate=11 February 2014}}</ref><ref>{{cite news |last=Boyle |first=Rebecca |url=http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn27651-listening-to-meteorites-hitting-mars-will-tell-us-whats-inside.html |title=Listening to meteorites hitting Mars will tell us what's inside |work=New Scientist |date=4 June 2015 |accessdate=2015-06-05}}</ref><ref>{{cite news |last=Kumar |first=Sunil |url=http://www3.imperial.ac.uk/pls/portallive/docs/1/30451696.PDF |title=Design and development of a silicon micro-seismometer |work=PhD Thesis |date=1 September 2006 |accessdate=2015-07-15}}</ref> SEIS is provided by the [[CNES|French Space Agency]] (CNES), with the participation of the [[Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris]] (IPGP), the [[ETH Zurich|Swiss Federal Institute of Technology]] (ETH), the [[Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research]] (MPS), [[Imperial College London|Imperial College]], [[Institut supérieur de l'aéronautique et de l'espace]] (ISAE) and JPL.<ref>{{Cite news |url=http://arstechnica.com/science/2012/08/new-probe-to-provide-insight-into-mars-interior/ |title=New probe to provide InSight into Mars' interior |first=Matthew |last=Francis |publisher=''[[Ars Technica]]'' |date=21 August 2012 |accessdate=21 August 2012}}</ref><ref>{{cite conference |url=http://meetingorganizer.copernicus.org/EPSC-DPS2011/EPSC-DPS2011-1507-1.pdf |title=The GEMS (GEophysical Monitoring Station) SEISmometer}}</ref> The seismometer is a sensitive broad-band instrument designed to detect sources including atmospheric excitation and tidal forces from Phobos.<ref name=octoberpres>[http://mepag.jpl.nasa.gov/meeting/2012-10/10_2012-1004_MEPAG.pdf InSight - Geophysical Mission to Mars]. W. Bruce Banerdt. October 2012.</ref>
 
*The '''Seismic Experiment for Interior Structure''' (SEIS) will take precise measurements of quakes and other internal activity on Mars to better understand the planet's history and structure. It will also investigate how the Martian crust and mantle respond to the effects of meteorite impacts, which gives clues to the planet's inner structure.<ref>{{cite news |author=Staff |title=NASA and French Space Agency Sign Agreement for Mars Mission |date=10 February 2014 |work=[[NASA]] |url=http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/news.php?release=2014-043 |accessdate=11 February 2014}}</ref><ref>{{cite news |last=Boyle |first=Rebecca |url=http://www.newscientist.com/article/dn27651-listening-to-meteorites-hitting-mars-will-tell-us-whats-inside.html |title=Listening to meteorites hitting Mars will tell us what's inside |work=New Scientist |date=4 June 2015 |accessdate=2015-06-05}}</ref><ref>{{cite news |last=Kumar |first=Sunil |url=http://www3.imperial.ac.uk/pls/portallive/docs/1/30451696.PDF |title=Design and development of a silicon micro-seismometer |work=PhD Thesis |date=1 September 2006 |accessdate=2015-07-15}}</ref> SEIS is provided by the [[CNES|French Space Agency]] (CNES), with the participation of the [[Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris]] (IPGP), the [[ETH Zurich|Swiss Federal Institute of Technology]] (ETH), the [[Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research]] (MPS), [[Imperial College London|Imperial College]], [[Institut supérieur de l'aéronautique et de l'espace]] (ISAE) and JPL.<ref>{{Cite news |url=http://arstechnica.com/science/2012/08/new-probe-to-provide-insight-into-mars-interior/ |title=New probe to provide InSight into Mars' interior |first=Matthew |last=Francis |publisher=''[[Ars Technica]]'' |date=21 August 2012 |accessdate=21 August 2012}}</ref><ref>{{cite conference |url=http://meetingorganizer.copernicus.org/EPSC-DPS2011/EPSC-DPS2011-1507-1.pdf |title=The GEMS (GEophysical Monitoring Station) SEISmometer}}</ref> The seismometer is a sensitive broad-band instrument designed to detect sources including atmospheric excitation and tidal forces from Phobos.<ref name=octoberpres>[http://mepag.jpl.nasa.gov/meeting/2012-10/10_2012-1004_MEPAG.pdf InSight - Geophysical Mission to Mars]. W. Bruce Banerdt. October 2012.</ref>
*The '''Heat Flow and Physical Properties Package''' (HP<sup>3</sup>) instrument, provided by the [[German Aerospace Center|German Space Agency]] (DLR), is a self-penetrating heat flow probe —nicknamed "the mole".<ref name=octoberpres/><ref name='New Insight on Mars Expected From New NASA Mission'/><ref name=flow/><ref name=mtm/> Also called a "self-hammering nail", it is being designed to burrow up to {{convert|5|m|ft|abbr=on}} below the surface to measure how much heat is coming from Mars' [[Planetary core|core]], and thus help reveal the planet's thermal history.<ref name=octoberpres/><ref name='New Insight on Mars Expected From New NASA Mission'>{{cite web |url=http://mars.jpl.nasa.gov/news/whatsnew/index.cfm?FuseAction=ShowNews&NewsID=1318 |title=Mars Exploration Program- New Insight on Mars Expected From New NASA Mission |accessdate=23 August 2012 |year=2012 |work=NASA - JPL}}</ref><ref name=flow>{{cite conference |url=http://meetingorganizer.copernicus.org/EPSC-DPS2011/EPSC-DPS2011-379-1.pdf |title=Measuring Heat Flow on Mars: The Heat Flow and Physical Properties Package on GEMS}}</ref><ref name=mtm>{{cite news |url=http://www.glendalenewspress.com/news/tn-vsl-0522-taking-a-look-inside-mars,0,3327723.story |title=JPL begins work on two new missions to Mars |work=Glendale News-Press |first=Tiffany |last=Kelly |date=22 May 2013 |accessdate=24 August 2015}}</ref> It trails a tether containing precise temperature sensors every {{convert|10|cm|abbr=on}} to measure the temperature profile of the subsurface.<ref name="octoberpres"/><ref>{{cite web |url=http://insight.jpl.nasa.gov/hp3.cfm |title=HP3 (Heat Flow and Physical Properties Probe) |publisher=NASA |accessdate=24 August 2015}}</ref>
+
*The '''Heat Flow and Physical Properties Package''' (HP<sup>3</sup>) instrument, provided by the German Space Agency (DLR), is a self-penetrating heat flow probe —nicknamed "the mole".<ref name=octoberpres/><ref name='New Insight on Mars Expected From New NASA Mission'/><ref name=flow/><ref name=mtm/> Also called a "self-hammering nail", it is being designed to burrow up to {{convert|5|m|ft|abbr=on}} below the surface to measure how much heat is coming from Mars' [[Planetary core|core]], and thus help reveal the planet's thermal history.<ref name=octoberpres/><ref name='New Insight on Mars Expected From New NASA Mission'>{{cite web |url=http://mars.jpl.nasa.gov/news/whatsnew/index.cfm?FuseAction=ShowNews&NewsID=1318 |title=Mars Exploration Program- New Insight on Mars Expected From New NASA Mission |accessdate=23 August 2012 |year=2012 |work=NASA - JPL}}</ref><ref name=flow>{{cite conference |url=http://meetingorganizer.copernicus.org/EPSC-DPS2011/EPSC-DPS2011-379-1.pdf |title=Measuring Heat Flow on Mars: The Heat Flow and Physical Properties Package on GEMS}}</ref><ref name=mtm>{{cite news |url=http://www.glendalenewspress.com/news/tn-vsl-0522-taking-a-look-inside-mars,0,3327723.story |title=JPL begins work on two new missions to Mars |work=Glendale News-Press |first=Tiffany |last=Kelly |date=22 May 2013 |accessdate=24 August 2015}}</ref> It trails a tether containing precise temperature sensors every {{convert|10|cm|abbr=on}} to measure the temperature profile of the subsurface.<ref name="octoberpres"/><ref>{{cite web |url=http://insight.jpl.nasa.gov/hp3.cfm |title=HP3 (Heat Flow and Physical Properties Probe) |publisher=NASA |accessdate=24 August 2015}}</ref>
   
 
[[File:PIA17358-MarsInSightLander-20140326.jpg|thumb|''InSight'' lander with labeled instruments]]
 
[[File:PIA17358-MarsInSightLander-20140326.jpg|thumb|''InSight'' lander with labeled instruments]]
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A camera mounted on the lander's arm can capture black and white images of the instruments on the lander's deck and a [[stereoscopy|3-D]] view of the ground where the [[seismometer]] and heat flow probe will be placed. It will then be used to help engineers and scientists guide the deployment of the instruments to the ground. With a 45-degree field of view, the camera will also provide a panoramic view of the terrain surrounding the landing site.<ref name='technology'>{{cite web |url=http://insight.jpl.nasa.gov/technology/ |title=InSight - Technology |accessdate=20 August 2012 |year=2012 |work=NASA - JPL}}</ref> A second similar camera, with a wide-angle 120-degree field of view lens will be mounted under the edge of the lander's deck and will provide a complementary view of the instrument deployment area.<ref name='technology'/>
 
A camera mounted on the lander's arm can capture black and white images of the instruments on the lander's deck and a [[stereoscopy|3-D]] view of the ground where the [[seismometer]] and heat flow probe will be placed. It will then be used to help engineers and scientists guide the deployment of the instruments to the ground. With a 45-degree field of view, the camera will also provide a panoramic view of the terrain surrounding the landing site.<ref name='technology'>{{cite web |url=http://insight.jpl.nasa.gov/technology/ |title=InSight - Technology |accessdate=20 August 2012 |year=2012 |work=NASA - JPL}}</ref> A second similar camera, with a wide-angle 120-degree field of view lens will be mounted under the edge of the lander's deck and will provide a complementary view of the instrument deployment area.<ref name='technology'/>
   
A color camera was also considered if certain criteria such as the project meeting development deadlines and budgeted funding, but this failed to materialize.<ref name="bb13"/><ref name="Golombek2014">{{cite conference |url=http://mepag.jpl.nasa.gov/meeting/2014-05/17_Golombek%20MEPAG%20InSight.pdf |title=InSight Project Status and Landing Site Selection |conference=MEPAG Meeting. 14 May 2014. Crystal City, Virigina. |publisher=NASA |first1=Matt |last1=Golombek |first2=Bruce |last2=Banerdt |date=2014}}</ref> An electromagnetic sounder to provide data on crustal thickness, ground water, and on the mantle lithosphere was considered as well.<ref name=insight2009>[http://www.spacepolicyonline.com/pages/images/stories/PSDS%20Mars2%20Banerdt%20rev.pdf Geophysical Network Mission for Mars]</ref> Technology to clean dust off the solar panels was considered for [[Mars Exploration Rover]]'s development.<ref>[http://www.newscientist.com/blogs/shortsharpscience/2008/11/why-dont-the-mars-rovers-have.html Why don't the Mars rovers have dust wipers?] - ''New Scientist'' (2008)</ref> In the years since their development others have proposed ways of cleaning off panels.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://ceramics.org/ceramic-tech-today/mars-cleaning-tech-offers-method-to-sweep-dust-off-earths-solar-panels |title=Mars cleaning tech offers method to sweep dust off Earth’s solar panels |publisher=The American Ceramic Society |date=25 August 2010}}</ref> The effects of [[Mars dust|Martian surface dust]] on [[solar cell]]s was studied in the 1990s by the [[Materials Adherence Experiment]] on [[Mars Pathfinder]].<ref name="Results">{{cite conference |title=Dust on Mars: Materials Adherence Experiment results from Mars Pathfinder |conference=Photovoltaic Specialists Conference. 29 September-3 October 1997. Anaheim, California. |first1=G. A. |last1=Landis |first2=P. P. |last2=Jenkins |date=1997 |doi=10.1109/PVSC.1997.654224}}</ref><ref name="Science">{{cite journal |title=Characterization of the Martian surface deposits by the Mars Pathfinder rover, Sojourner |journal=[[Science (journal)|Science]] |first1=J. R. |last1=Matijevic |first2=J. |last2=Crisp |first3=D. B. |last3=Bickler |first4=R. S. |last4=Banes |first5=B. K. |last5=Cooper |display-authors=etal |volume=278 |issue=5344 |pages=1765–1768 |date=December 1997 |doi=10.1126/science.278.5344.1765 |bibcode=1997Sci...278.1765M}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |url=http://ualr.edu/mkmazumder/research.html |title=UALR Particulate Science Research |publisher=University of Arkansas at Little Rock |date=2013 |accessdate=20 February 2014}}</ref> ''InSight'' may represent possible piggy-back opportunity for [[MetNet]].<ref name="2012 assembly">{{cite journal |url=http://meetingorganizer.copernicus.org/EGU2012/EGU2012-8224.pdf |title=Future Plans for MetNet Lander Mars Missions |journal=[[Geophysical Research Abstracts]] |first1=A.-M. |last1=Harri |first2=W. |last2=Schmidt |first3=H. |last3=Guerrero |first4=L. |last4=Vázquez |volume=14 |issue=EGU2012–8224 |date=April 2012 |bibcode=2012EGUGA..14.8224H}}</ref> It may also be a chance to capitalize on previously funded technology development such as the ''[[ExoMars (rover)#De-scoped instruments|Urey Mars Organic and Oxidant Detector]]'' and ''[[ExoMars (rover)#Pasteur instrument suite|Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer]]''.<ref>[http://www.nasa.gov/centers/langley/news/researchernews/rn_proposalselection.html NASA]</ref>
+
A color camera was also considered if certain criteria such as the project meeting development deadlines and budgeted funding, but this failed to materialize.<ref name="bb13"/><ref name="Golombek2014">{{cite conference |url=http://mepag.jpl.nasa.gov/meeting/2014-05/17_Golombek%20MEPAG%20InSight.pdf |title=InSight Project Status and Landing Site Selection |conference=MEPAG Meeting. 14 May 2014. Crystal City, Virigina. |publisher=NASA |first1=Matt |last1=Golombek |first2=Bruce |last2=Banerdt |date=2014}}</ref> An electromagnetic sounder to provide data on crustal thickness, ground water, and on the mantle lithosphere was considered as well.<ref name=insight2009>[http://www.spacepolicyonline.com/pages/images/stories/PSDS%20Mars2%20Banerdt%20rev.pdf Geophysical Network Mission for Mars]</ref> Technology to clean dust off the solar panels was considered for [[Mars Exploration Rover]]'s development.<ref>[http://www.newscientist.com/blogs/shortsharpscience/2008/11/why-dont-the-mars-rovers-have.html Why don't the Mars rovers have dust wipers?] - ''New Scientist'' (2008)</ref> In the years since their development others have proposed ways of cleaning off panels.<ref>{{cite web |url=http://ceramics.org/ceramic-tech-today/mars-cleaning-tech-offers-method-to-sweep-dust-off-earths-solar-panels |title=Mars cleaning tech offers method to sweep dust off Earth’s solar panels |publisher=The American Ceramic Society |date=25 August 2010}}</ref> The effects of [[Mars dust|Martian surface dust]] on [[solar cell]]s was studied in the 1990s by the [[Materials Adherence Experiment]] on [[Mars Pathfinder]].<ref name="Results">{{cite conference |title=Dust on Mars: Materials Adherence Experiment results from Mars Pathfinder |conference=Photovoltaic Specialists Conference. 29 September-3 October 1997. Anaheim, California. |first1=G. A. |last1=Landis |first2=P. P. |last2=Jenkins |date=1997 |doi=10.1109/PVSC.1997.654224}}</ref><ref name="Science">{{cite journal |title=Characterization of the Martian surface deposits by the Mars Pathfinder rover, Sojourner |journal=Science |first1=J. R. |last1=Matijevic |first2=J. |last2=Crisp |first3=D. B. |last3=Bickler |first4=R. S. |last4=Banes |first5=B. K. |last5=Cooper |display-authors=etal |volume=278 |issue=5344 |pages=1765–1768 |date=December 1997 |doi=10.1126/science.278.5344.1765 |bibcode=1997Sci...278.1765M}}</ref><ref>{{cite web |url=http://ualr.edu/mkmazumder/research.html |title=UALR Particulate Science Research |publisher=University of Arkansas at Little Rock |date=2013 |accessdate=20 February 2014}}</ref> ''InSight'' may represent possible piggy-back opportunity for [[MetNet]].<ref name="2012 assembly">{{cite journal |url=http://meetingorganizer.copernicus.org/EGU2012/EGU2012-8224.pdf |title=Future Plans for MetNet Lander Mars Missions |journal=[[Geophysical Research Abstracts]] |first1=A.-M. |last1=Harri |first2=W. |last2=Schmidt |first3=H. |last3=Guerrero |first4=L. |last4=Vázquez |volume=14 |issue=EGU2012–8224 |date=April 2012 |bibcode=2012EGUGA..14.8224H}}</ref> It may also be a chance to capitalize on previously funded technology development such as the ''[[ExoMars (rover)#De-scoped instruments|Urey Mars Organic and Oxidant Detector]]'' and ''[[ExoMars (rover)#Pasteur instrument suite|Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer]]''.<ref>[http://www.nasa.gov/centers/langley/news/researchernews/rn_proposalselection.html NASA]</ref>
   
 
==Launch==
 
==Launch==
The launch is being managed by NASA's [[Launch Services Program]]. Originally scheduled for 4 March 2016 on an [[Atlas V]] 401 (4 meter fairing/zero (0) [[solid rocket boosters]]/single (1) engine [[Centaur (rocket stage)|Centaur]]) from [[Vandenberg Air Force Base]] in California, USA.<ref name='Contract'>{{cite web |title=NASA Awards Launch Services Contract for InSight Mission |url=http://www.nasa.gov/press/2013/december/nasa-awards-launch-services-contract-for-insight-mission/ |website=NASA |accessdate=11 December 2014}}</ref> This would have been the first American [[interplanetary mission]] to launch from California.<ref name='Contract'/> On 22 December 2015, NASA called off the launch of ''InSight'' in March 2016 due to the inability of the SEIS instrument to hold a protective [[vacuum]] under simulated Martian conditions.<ref name="AP-20151222">{{cite news |url=http://apnews.excite.com/article/20151222/us-sci--mars_lander-de6da5a926.html |title=NASA calls off next Mars mission because of instrument leak |work=Excite News |agency=Associated Press |date=22 December 2015 |accessdate=22 December 2015}}</ref><ref name="NYT-20151222">{{cite news |url=http://www.nytimes.com/2015/12/23/science/space/leaks-in-instrument-force-nasa-to-delay-mars-mission-until-2018.html |title=Leaks in Instrument Force NASA to Delay Mars Mission Until 2018 |work=[[The New York Times]] |last=Chang |first=Kenneth |date=22 December 2015 |accessdate=22 December 2015}}</ref><ref name="NASA-20151222">{{cite web |url=http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/news.php?feature=4805 |title=NASA Suspends 2016 Launch of InSight Mission to Mars |publisher=NASA |last1=Brown |first1=Dwayne |last2=Cantillo |first2=Laurie |last3=Webster |first3=Guy |last4=Watelet |first4=Julien |date=22 December 2015 |accessdate=23 December 2015}}</ref>
+
The launch is being managed by NASA's [[Launch Services Program]]. Originally scheduled for 4 March 2016 on an [[Atlas V]] 401 (4 meter fairing/zero (0) [[solid rocket boosters]]/single (1) engine [[Centaur (rocket stage)|Centaur]]) from [[Vandenberg Air Force Base]] in California, USA.<ref name='Contract'>{{cite web |title=NASA Awards Launch Services Contract for InSight Mission |url=http://www.nasa.gov/press/2013/december/nasa-awards-launch-services-contract-for-insight-mission/ |website=NASA |accessdate=11 December 2014}}</ref> This would have been the first American [[interplanetary mission]] to launch from California.<ref name='Contract'/> On 22 December 2015, NASA called off the launch of ''InSight'' in March 2016 due to the inability of the SEIS instrument to hold a protective vacuum under simulated Martian conditions.<ref name="AP-20151222">{{cite news |url=http://apnews.excite.com/article/20151222/us-sci--mars_lander-de6da5a926.html |title=NASA calls off next Mars mission because of instrument leak |work=Excite News |agency=Associated Press |date=22 December 2015 |accessdate=22 December 2015}}</ref><ref name="NYT-20151222">{{cite news |url=http://www.nytimes.com/2015/12/23/science/space/leaks-in-instrument-force-nasa-to-delay-mars-mission-until-2018.html |title=Leaks in Instrument Force NASA to Delay Mars Mission Until 2018 |work=The New York Times |last=Chang |first=Kenneth |date=22 December 2015 |accessdate=22 December 2015}}</ref><ref name="NASA-20151222">{{cite web |url=http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/news/news.php?feature=4805 |title=NASA Suspends 2016 Launch of InSight Mission to Mars |publisher=NASA |last1=Brown |first1=Dwayne |last2=Cantillo |first2=Laurie |last3=Webster |first3=Guy |last4=Watelet |first4=Julien |date=22 December 2015 |accessdate=23 December 2015}}</ref>
   
 
==Planned landing site==
 
==Planned landing site==
 
[[File:Phoenix landing.jpg|thumb|150px|''Phoenix'' landing art, similar to ''Insight'']]
 
[[File:Phoenix landing.jpg|thumb|150px|''Phoenix'' landing art, similar to ''Insight'']]
 
[[File:PIA19143-MarsMission-InSight-LandingMap-20150304.jpg|thumb|150px|All four possible landing sites are on [[Elysium Planitia]]; this landing ellipse is one of them, located at {{coord|4.5|N|136|E|globe:Mars}}.]]
 
[[File:PIA19143-MarsMission-InSight-LandingMap-20150304.jpg|thumb|150px|All four possible landing sites are on [[Elysium Planitia]]; this landing ellipse is one of them, located at {{coord|4.5|N|136|E|globe:Mars}}.]]
As ''InSight''{{'s}} science goals are not related to any particular surface feature of Mars, potential landing sites were chosen on the basis of practicality. Candidate sites needed to be near the [[equator]] of Mars to provide sufficient sunlight for the solar panels year round, have a low elevation to allow for sufficient atmospheric braking during [[Atmospheric entry|EDL]], flat, relatively rock-free to reduce the probability of complications during landing, and soft enough terrain to allow the heat flow probe to penetrate well into the ground. An optimal area that meets all these requirements is [[Elysium Planitia]], so all 22 initial potential landing sites were located in this area.<ref>{{cite news |last=Vergano |first=Dan |title=NASA searches for (literally) boring Mars landing site |date=4 September 2013 |url=http://www.hattiesburgamerican.com/usatoday/article/2764137 |work=USA Today |accessdate=5 September 2013}}</ref> The only two other areas on the equator and at low elevation, [[Isidis Planitia]] and [[Valles Marineris]], are too rocky. In addition, Valles Marineris has too steep a gradient to allow safe landing.<ref name=landing>{{cite web |author=Staff |title=NASA Evaluates Four Candidate Sites for 2016 Mars Mission |url=http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/insight/news/insight20130904.html |work=[[NASA]] |accessdate=4 September 2013 |date=4 September 2013}}</ref>
+
As ''InSight''{{'s}} science goals are not related to any particular surface feature of Mars, potential landing sites were chosen on the basis of practicality. Candidate sites needed to be near the equator of Mars to provide sufficient sunlight for the solar panels year round, have a low elevation to allow for sufficient atmospheric braking during [[Atmospheric entry|EDL]], flat, relatively rock-free to reduce the probability of complications during landing, and soft enough terrain to allow the heat flow probe to penetrate well into the ground. An optimal area that meets all these requirements is [[Elysium Planitia]], so all 22 initial potential landing sites were located in this area.<ref>{{cite news |last=Vergano |first=Dan |title=NASA searches for (literally) boring Mars landing site |date=4 September 2013 |url=http://www.hattiesburgamerican.com/usatoday/article/2764137 |work=USA Today |accessdate=5 September 2013}}</ref> The only two other areas on the equator and at low elevation, [[Isidis Planitia]] and [[Valles Marineris]], are too rocky. In addition, Valles Marineris has too steep a gradient to allow safe landing.<ref name=landing>{{cite web |author=Staff |title=NASA Evaluates Four Candidate Sites for 2016 Mars Mission |url=http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/insight/news/insight20130904.html |work=[[NASA]] |accessdate=4 September 2013 |date=4 September 2013}}</ref>
   
 
In September 2013, the initial 22 potential landing sites were narrowed to 4, the [[Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter]] will then be used to gain more information on each of the 4 potential sites before a final decision is made.<ref name=landing/><ref name="Trget NBC">{{cite news |last=Boyle |first=Alan |url=http://www.nbcnews.com/science/space/nasa-picks-prime-target-2016-insight-mars-lander-n317631 |title=NASA Picks Prime Target for 2016 InSight Mars Lander |work=NBC New |date=5 March 2015 |accessdate=5 March 2015}}</ref> Each site consists of a landing ellipse that measures about 130&nbsp;km (81 miles) long by 27&nbsp;km (17 miles) wide.<ref>{{cite news |last=Wall |first=Mike |url=http://www.space.com/28793-nasa-insight-mars-lander-landing-site.html |title=NASA Eyeing Landing Site for 2016 Mars Mission |work=Space.com |date=March 11, 2015 |accessdate=2015-03-11}}</ref>
 
In September 2013, the initial 22 potential landing sites were narrowed to 4, the [[Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter]] will then be used to gain more information on each of the 4 potential sites before a final decision is made.<ref name=landing/><ref name="Trget NBC">{{cite news |last=Boyle |first=Alan |url=http://www.nbcnews.com/science/space/nasa-picks-prime-target-2016-insight-mars-lander-n317631 |title=NASA Picks Prime Target for 2016 InSight Mars Lander |work=NBC New |date=5 March 2015 |accessdate=5 March 2015}}</ref> Each site consists of a landing ellipse that measures about 130&nbsp;km (81 miles) long by 27&nbsp;km (17 miles) wide.<ref>{{cite news |last=Wall |first=Mike |url=http://www.space.com/28793-nasa-insight-mars-lander-landing-site.html |title=NASA Eyeing Landing Site for 2016 Mars Mission |work=Space.com |date=March 11, 2015 |accessdate=2015-03-11}}</ref>
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==External links==
 
==External links==
{{Commons category}}
+
{{Commons|Category:InSight}}
 
*[http://www.nasa.gov/insight/ ''InSight''] at NASA.gov
 
*[http://www.nasa.gov/insight/ ''InSight''] at NASA.gov
 
*[http://insight.jpl.nasa.gov/ ''InSight''] by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory
 
*[http://insight.jpl.nasa.gov/ ''InSight''] by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory
 
{{Portal bar|Mars|Spaceflight}}
 
 
{{Mars}}
 
 
{{Discovery and New Frontiers program}}
 
{{Discovery and New Frontiers program}}
 
{{Future spaceflights}}
 
{{Future spaceflights}}
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{{Mars spacecraft}}
 
{{Mars spacecraft}}
 
{{NASA space program}}
 
{{NASA space program}}
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  +
{{Wikipedia|InSight}}
   
 
[[Category:Discovery Program]]
 
[[Category:Discovery Program]]

Latest revision as of 01:33, August 3, 2016

Template:Infobox spaceflight

InSight is a robotic Mars lander manufactured in the 2010s which was originally planned for launch in March 2016.[1] The name is a backronym for Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport.[2] Due to the failure of its SEIS instrument prior to launch, NASA announced in December 2015 that the mission had been postponed, and in March 2016, launch was rescheduled for 5 May 2018.

The mission's objective is to place a stationary lander equipped with a seismometer and heat transfer probe on the surface of Mars to study its early geological evolution. This would bring new understanding of the Solar System's terrestrial planetsMercury, Venus, Earth, Mars — and Earth’s Moon. By reusing technology from the Mars Phoenix lander, which successfully landed on Mars in 2008, it is expected that the cost and risk will be reduced.[2]

Following a persistent vacuum failure in the main scientific instrument, the launch window was missed, and the InSight spacecraft was returned to Lockheed Martin's factory in Colorado. NASA officials decided in March 2016 to spend an estimated US$150 million to delay launch of InSight to May 2018.[3]

HistoryEdit

InSight was initially known as GEMS (Geophysical Monitoring Station), but its name was changed in early 2012 at the request of NASA.[4] Out of 28 proposals from 2010,[5] it was one of the three Discovery Program finalists receiving US$3 million in May 2011 to develop a detailed concept study.[6] In August 2012, InSight was selected for development and launch.[1] Managed by NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) with participation from scientists from several countries, the mission is cost-capped at US$425 million, not including launch vehicle funding.[7]

NASA began construction of the lander on 19 May 2014,[8] with general testing starting in 27 May 2015.[9]

A persistent vacuum leak in the French seismometer known as the Seismic Experiment for Interior Structure (SEIS) led NASA to postpone the planned launch in March 2016 to November 2018. NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory will take over development of the vacuum container for SEIS, with France's space agency, CNES, handling instrument integration and test activities.[10]

StatusEdit

The InSight spacecraft has been returned to Lockheed Martin's factory in Colorado for storage, and the Atlas V rocket intended to launch the spacecraft has been reassigned to the WorldView-4 mission.[11]

NASA officials announced on 9 March 2016 that InSight is not planned for cancellation, but would instead be delayed until the 2018 launch window at an estimated cost of US$150 million.[3][12] The spacecraft is scheduled to launch on 5 May 2018 for a Mars landing on 26 November; the flight plan remains unchanged, and launch will take place aboard an Atlas V rocket from Vandenberg Air Force Base.[3][12] NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory has been tasked with redesigning and building a new vacuum enclosure for the SEIS instrument, while CNES will conduct instrument integration and testing.[10][13]

ObjectivesEdit

InSight will place a single stationary lander on Mars to study its deep interior and address a fundamental issue of planetary and Solar System science: understanding the processes that shaped the rocky planets of the inner Solar System (including Earth) more than four billion years ago.[14]

Error creating thumbnail: Invalid thumbnail parameters

Interiors of Earth, Mars and the Moon (artist's concept)

InSight's primary objective is to study the earliest evolutionary history of the processes that shaped Mars. By studying the size, thickness, density and overall structure of Mars' core, mantle and crust, as well as the rate at which heat escapes from the planet's interior, InSight will provide a glimpse into the evolutionary processes of all of the rocky planets in the inner Solar System.[14] The rocky inner planets share a common ancestry that begins with a process called accretion. As the body increases in size, its interior heats up and evolves to become a terrestrial planet, containing a core, mantle and crust.[15] Despite this common ancestry, each of the terrestrial planets is later shaped and molded through a poorly understood process called differentiation. InSight mission's goal is to improve understanding of this process and, by extension, terrestrial evolution, by measuring the planetary building blocks shaped by differentiation: a terrestrial planet's core, mantle and crust.[15]

The mission will determine if there is any seismic activity, measure the amount of heat flow from the interior, estimate the size of Mars' core and whether the core is liquid or solid.[16] This data would be the first of its kind on Mars.[17] The mission's secondary objective is to conduct an in-depth study of geophysics, tectonic activity and the effect of meteorite impacts on Mars, which could provide knowledge about such processes on Earth. Crust thickness, mantle velocity, core radius and density, and seismic activity should experience a measured accuracy increase on the order 3X to 10X compared to current data.[17]

In terms of fundamental processes shaping planetary formation, Mars contains the most in-depth and accurate historical record, because it is big enough to have undergone the earliest accretion and internal heating processes that shaped the terrestrial planets, but small enough to have retained signs of those processes.[14]

DesignEdit

PIA19144-MarsMission-InSight-Testing-20150304

Testing of the lander's robotic arm that will deploy the seismometer.

The mission further develops design heritage from the 2008 Phoenix Mars Lander.[18] Because InSight is planned to be powered by a photovoltaic system, it would land near the equator to enable a projected lifetime of 2 years (or 1 Mars year).[2]

SpecificationsEdit

Mass
794 lb (Template:Convert/round kg)[19]
Dimensions
About 20 ft (Template:Convert/round m) wide with solar panels deployed. The science deck is about 6.5 ft (Template:Convert/round m) deep and 4.5 ft (Template:Convert/round m) high.[19]
Power
Power is generated by two round photovoltaic arrays, each 2.15 m (Template:Convert/round ft) in diameter and consisting of SolAero ZTJ triple-junction solar cells made of InGaP/InGaAs/Ge arranged on Orbital ATK UltraFlex arrays. After touchdown on the Martian surface, the arrays are deployed by opening up like a folding fan.[20][21]
CubeSats
The Mars Cube One (MarCO) spacecraft, a set of two 6U CubeSats, will piggyback with the InSight mission to help relay communications during the probe's entry, descent and landing phase.[22][23] The two 6U CubeSats, named "MarCO" A and B, are identical.[24] They measure Template loop detected: Template:Convert/x and will fly as a pair for redundancy. They will fly by Mars during the entry, descent and landing (EDL) phase of the InSight mission and relay InSight's telemetry in real time.[25][26] MarCO is a technology capability demonstration of communications relay system.

Template:Gallery

Scientific payloadEdit

InSight's science payload will consist of two main instruments:

PIA17358-MarsInSightLander-20140326

InSight lander with labeled instruments

  • Additionally, the Rotation and Interior Structure Experiment (RISE) led by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), will use the lander's X-band radio to provide precise measurements of planetary rotation to better understand the inside of Mars.[37] X-band radio tracking, capable of an accuracy under 2 cm, will build on previous Viking program and Mars Pathfinder data.[32] The previous data sets allowed the core size to be constrained, but with a third data set from InSight, the nutation amplitude can be determined.[32] Once spin axis direction, precession, and nutation amplitudes are better understood, it should be possible to calculate the size and density of the Martian core and mantle.[32] This would increase the understanding on the formation of terrestrial planets (e.g. Earth) and rocky exoplanets.[32]
  • Wind and temperature sensors, as well as a high-resolution (10 mPa) pressure sensor from Spain's Centro de Astrobiología will monitor weather at the landing site.[17][38]
  • A magnetometer will measure magnetic disturbances caused by the Martian ionosphere.[38]

A camera mounted on the lander's arm can capture black and white images of the instruments on the lander's deck and a 3-D view of the ground where the seismometer and heat flow probe will be placed. It will then be used to help engineers and scientists guide the deployment of the instruments to the ground. With a 45-degree field of view, the camera will also provide a panoramic view of the terrain surrounding the landing site.[39] A second similar camera, with a wide-angle 120-degree field of view lens will be mounted under the edge of the lander's deck and will provide a complementary view of the instrument deployment area.[39]

A color camera was also considered if certain criteria such as the project meeting development deadlines and budgeted funding, but this failed to materialize.[17][40] An electromagnetic sounder to provide data on crustal thickness, ground water, and on the mantle lithosphere was considered as well.[41] Technology to clean dust off the solar panels was considered for Mars Exploration Rover's development.[42] In the years since their development others have proposed ways of cleaning off panels.[43] The effects of Martian surface dust on solar cells was studied in the 1990s by the Materials Adherence Experiment on Mars Pathfinder.[44][45][46] InSight may represent possible piggy-back opportunity for MetNet.[47] It may also be a chance to capitalize on previously funded technology development such as the Urey Mars Organic and Oxidant Detector and Mars Organic Molecule Analyzer.[48]

LaunchEdit

The launch is being managed by NASA's Launch Services Program. Originally scheduled for 4 March 2016 on an Atlas V 401 (4 meter fairing/zero (0) solid rocket boosters/single (1) engine Centaur) from Vandenberg Air Force Base in California, USA.[49] This would have been the first American interplanetary mission to launch from California.[49] On 22 December 2015, NASA called off the launch of InSight in March 2016 due to the inability of the SEIS instrument to hold a protective vacuum under simulated Martian conditions.[50][51][52]

Planned landing siteEdit

Phoenix landing

Phoenix landing art, similar to Insight

PIA19143-MarsMission-InSight-LandingMap-20150304

All four possible landing sites are on Elysium Planitia; this landing ellipse is one of them, located at Template:Coord.

As InSight's science goals are not related to any particular surface feature of Mars, potential landing sites were chosen on the basis of practicality. Candidate sites needed to be near the equator of Mars to provide sufficient sunlight for the solar panels year round, have a low elevation to allow for sufficient atmospheric braking during EDL, flat, relatively rock-free to reduce the probability of complications during landing, and soft enough terrain to allow the heat flow probe to penetrate well into the ground. An optimal area that meets all these requirements is Elysium Planitia, so all 22 initial potential landing sites were located in this area.[53] The only two other areas on the equator and at low elevation, Isidis Planitia and Valles Marineris, are too rocky. In addition, Valles Marineris has too steep a gradient to allow safe landing.[54]

In September 2013, the initial 22 potential landing sites were narrowed to 4, the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter will then be used to gain more information on each of the 4 potential sites before a final decision is made.[54][55] Each site consists of a landing ellipse that measures about 130 km (81 miles) long by 27 km (17 miles) wide.[56]

Team and participationEdit

The InSight science and engineering team includes scientists and engineers from many disciplines, countries and organizations. The science team assigned to InSight includes scientists from institutions in the U.S., France, Germany, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Japan, Switzerland, Spain and the United Kingdom.[57]

Mars Exploration Rover project scientist W. Bruce Banerdt is the principal investigator for the InSight mission and the lead scientist for the SEIS instrument.[58] Suzanne Smrekar, whose research focuses on the thermal evolution of planets and who has done extensive testing and development on instruments designed to measure the thermal properties and heat flow on other planets,[59] is the lead for InSight's HP3 instrument. Sami Asmar, an expert in advanced studies using radio waves,[60] is the lead for InSight's RISE investigation. The InSight mission team also includes project manager Tom Hoffman and deputy project manager Henry Stone.[57]

See alsoEdit

ReferencesEdit

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External linksEdit

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