Kalpana Chawla (March 17, 1962 – February 1, 2003) was an Indo-American astronaut and the first woman of Indian origin in space. She first flew on Space Shuttle Columbia in 1997 as a mission specialist and primary robotic arm operator. In 2003, Chawla was one of the seven crew members killed in the Space Shuttle Columbia disaster.
Kalpana Chawla was born on 17 March 1962 in Karnal. Her official date of birth was altered to 1 July 1961 to allow her to join school underage. She moved to the United States in 1982 where she obtained a Master of Science degree in aerospace engineering from the University of Texas at Arlington in 1984. Determined to become an astronaut even in the face of the Challenger disaster, Chawla went on to earn a second Masters in 1986 and a PhD in aerospace engineering in 1988 from the University of Colorado at Boulder.
In 1988, she began working at the NASA Ames Research Center, where she did Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) research on Vertical/Short Takeoff and Landing concepts. In 1993, she joined Overset Methods, Inc. as Vice President and Research Scientist specializing in simulation of moving multiple body problems. Chawla held a Certificated Flight Instructor rating for airplanes, gliders and Commercial Pilot licenses for single and multi-engine airplanes, seaplanes and gliders. Becoming a naturalized U.S. citizen in April 1991, Chawla applied for the NASA Astronaut Corps. She joined the Corps in March 1995 and was selected for her first flight in 1996. She spoke the following words while traveling in the weightlessness of space, "You are just your intelligence". She traveled 10.67 million km, as many as 252 times around the Earth.
First space missionEdit
Her first space mission began on November 19, 1997, as part of the six-astronaut crew that flew the Space Shuttle Columbia flight STS-87. Chawla was the first Indian-born woman and the second Indian person to fly in space, following cosmonaut Rakesh Sharma who flew in 1984 on the Soyuz T-11. On her first mission, Chawla traveled over 10.4 million miles in 252 orbits of the earth, logging more than 372 hours in space. During STS-87, she was responsible for deploying the Spartan satellite which malfunctioned, necessitating a spacewalk by Winston Scott and Takao Doi to capture the satellite. A five-month NASA investigation fully exonerated Chawla by identifying errors in software interfaces and the defined procedures of flight crew and ground control. After the completion of STS-87 post-flight activities, Chawla was assigned to technical positions in the astronaut office to work on the space station, her performance in which was recognized with a special award from her peers.
Second space missionEdit
In 2000, Chawla was selected for her second flight as part of the crew of STS-107. This mission was repeatedly delayed due to scheduling conflicts and technical problems such as the July 2002 discovery of cracks in the shuttle engine flow liners. On January 16, 2003, Chawla finally returned to space aboard Space Shuttle Columbia on the ill-fated STS-107 mission. Chawla's responsibilities included the microgravity experiments, for which the crew conducted nearly 80 experiments studying earth and space science, advanced technology development, and astronaut health and safety. During the launch of STS-107, Columbia's 28th mission, a piece of foam insulation broke off from the Space Shuttle external tank and struck the left wing of the orbiter. A few previous shuttle launches had seen minor damage from foam shedding, but some engineers suspected that the damage to Columbia was more serious. NASA managers limited the investigation, reasoning that the crew could not have fixed the problem if it had been confirmed. When Columbia re-entered the atmosphere of Earth, the damage allowed hot atmospheric gases to penetrate and destroy the internal wing structure, which caused the spacecraft to become unstable and slowly break apart. After the disaster, Space Shuttle flight operations were suspended for more than two years, similar to the aftermath of the Challenger disaster. Construction of the International Space Station (ISS) was put on hold; the station relied entirely on the Russian Roscosmos State Corporation for resupply for 29 months until Shuttle flights resumed with STS-114 and 41 months for crew rotation until STS-121.
- Main article: Space Shuttle Columbia disaster
Chawla died in the Space Shuttle Columbia disaster which occurred on February 1, 2003, when the Columbia disintegrated over Texas during re-entry into the Earth's atmosphere, with the death of all seven crew members, shortly before it was scheduled to conclude its 28th mission, STS-107. Just 16 minutes before landing, the space shuttle disintegrated, killing all onboard.
Honors and recognitionEdit
- Asteroid 51826 Kalpanachawla, one of seven named after the Columbia's crew.
- On February 5, 2003, the Prime Minister of India announced that the meteorological series of satellites, MetSat, was to be renamed "Kalpana". The first satellite of the series, "MetSat-1", launched by India on September 12, 2002 was renamed "Kalpana-1".[dated info]
- 74th Street in Jackson Heights, Queens, New York City has been renamed Kalpana Chawla Way in her honor.
- The Kalpana Chawla Award was instituted by the Government of Karnataka in 2004 to recognize young women scientists.
- NASA has dedicated a supercomputer to Chawla.
- One of Florida Institute of Technology's student apartment complexes, Columbia Village Suites, has halls named after each of the astronauts, including Chawla.
- The NASA Mars Exploration Rover mission has named seven peaks in a chain of hills, named the Columbia Hills, after each of the seven astronauts lost in the Columbia shuttle disaster. One of them is Chawla Hill, named after Chawla.
- Steve Morse from the band Deep Purple created the song "Contact Lost" in memory of the Columbia tragedy along with her interest in the band. The song can be found on the album Bananas.
- Novelist Peter David named a shuttlecraft, the Chawla, after the astronaut in his 2007 Star Trek novel, Star Trek: The Next Generation: Before Dishonor.
- The Kalpana Chawla ISU Scholarship fund was founded by alumni of the International Space University (ISU) in 2010 to support Indian student participation in international space education programs.
- The Kalpana Chawla Memorial Scholarship program was instituted by the Indian Students Association (ISA) at the University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP) in 2005 for meritorious graduate students.
- The Kalpana Chawla Outstanding Recent Alumni Award at the University of Colorado, given since 1983, was renamed after Chawla.
- The University of Texas at Arlington, where Chawla obtained a Master of Science degree in aerospace engineering in 1984, opened a dormitory named Kalpana Chawla Hall in 2004. In addition, the university dedicated the Kalpana Chawla Memorial on May 3, 2010, in Nedderman Hall, one of the primary buildings in the College of Engineering.
- The girls' hostel at Punjab Engineering College is named after Chawla. In addition, an award of INR twenty-five thousand, a medal, and a certificate is instituted for the best student in the Aeronautical Engineering department.
- The Government of Haryana established the Kalpana Chawla Planetarium in Jyotisar, Kurukshetra.
- The Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, named the Kalpana Chawla Space Technology Cell in her honor.
- Delhi Technological University named a girls' hostel block after Chawla.
- A military housing development at Naval Air Station Patuxent River, Maryland, has been named Columbia Colony, and includes a street named Chawla Way.
- Hostel blocks in Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology, Sagar Institute of Research & Technology, VIT University and Pondicherry University have been named after Chawla.
- Kalpana Chawla Government Medical College (KCGMC) is a Medical College formed for women located in Karnal, Haryana, India named for Indian-born astronaut Kalpana Chawla
- ↑ "Life facts". NASA. http://spaceflight.nasa.gov/shuttle/archives/sts-107/memorial/chawla.html. Retrieved February 27, 2014.
- ↑ 2.0 2.1 Template:Cite news
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- ↑ "Kalpana Chawla". http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/28436243/ns/technology_and_science-space/t/nasa-reports-new-details-columbia-deaths/. Retrieved 2012-05-24.
- ↑ http://harrisonpublishing.net/pdf/book/kalpana_book.1.1.pdf
- ↑ Chawla, Kalpana (1984). "MS Thesis Optimization of cross flow fan housing for airplane wing installation.". University of Texas at Arlington. p. 97.
- ↑ Chawla, Kalpana (1988). "PhD Thesis Computation of dynamics and control of unsteady vortical flows.". University of Colorado at Boulder. p. 147.
- ↑ 10.0 10.1 10.2 "Kalpana Chawla (PH.D)". Biographical Data. NASA. http://www.jsc.nasa.gov/Bios/htmlbios/chawla.html. Retrieved September 14, 2014.
- ↑ "Kalpana Chawla". I Love India. http://www.iloveindia.com/indian-heroes/kalpana-chawla.html. Retrieved September 14, 2014.
- ↑ Columbia Accident Investigation Board (August 2003). "6.1 A History of Foam Anomalies (page 121)" (PDF). http://s3.amazonaws.com/akamai.netstorage/anon.nasa-global/CAIB/CAIB_lowres_chapter6.pdf. Retrieved June 26, 2014.
- ↑ Marcia Dunn (February 2, 2003). "Columbia's problems began on left wing". Associated Press via staugustine.com. http://staugustine.com/stories/020203/new_1299125.shtml.
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- ↑ Correspondent, A. "Space Shuttle Explodes, Kalpana Chawla dead". Rediff. http://www.rediff.com/us/2003/feb/01kalp.htm.
- ↑ "Tribute to the Crew of Columbia". NASA JPL. http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/releases/2003/columbia-tribute.cfm.
- ↑ "ISRO METSAT Satellite Series Named After Columbia Astronaut Kalpana Chawla". Spaceref.com. http://www.spaceref.com/news/viewnews.html?id=732.
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- ↑ "NASA Names Supercomputer After Columbia Astronaut". About.com. http://space.about.com/cs/nasanews/a/chawlacomputer.htm.
- ↑ "Space Music – Rock/Pop". HobbySpace. 2005-08-31. http://www.hobbyspace.com/Music/music1.html. Retrieved 2010-12-10.
- ↑ David, Peter; Star Trek: Next Generation: Before Dishonor; Page 24.
- ↑ Kalpana Chawla International Space University Scholarship
- ↑ "Kalpana Chawla Memorial Scholarship". UTEP. http://academics.utep.edu/Default.aspx?tabid=45209. Retrieved 2008-06-10.
- ↑ "Kalpana Chawla Award". University of Colorado. http://www.cualum.org/awards/chawla-award-winners.
- ↑ "Kalpana Chawla Hall". University of Texas at Arlington. http://www.uta.edu/housing/housing/residence-halls/kc-hall.php.
- ↑ "Kalpana Chawla Display Dedicated at Nedderman Hall". The University of Texas at Arlington. http://www.uta.edu/news/releases/2010/05/kalpana-chawla-display.php. Retrieved 2013-05-16.
- ↑ "Punjab Engineering College remembers Kalpana". The Indian Express. http://www.expressindia.com/fullstory.php?newsid=18844.
- ↑ "IBN News". Ibnlive.in.com. 2010-02-03. http://ibnlive.in.com/news/planetarium-in-kalpana-chawlas-memory/36993-11.html.
- ↑ Saxena, Ambuj. "Kalpana Chawla Space Technology Cell | Flickr – Photo Sharing!". Flickr. https://secure.flickr.com/photos/ambuj/421069342/.
- ↑ "Space Technology Cell". Kcstc.iitkgp.ernet.in. http://www.kcstc.iitkgp.ernet.in/.
- ↑ "Delhi University". http://hostels.dtu.ac.in/girls-hostels/kalpana-chawla-hostel/.
- ↑ "SIRT". http://sirtbhopal.ac.in/new/?page_id=1741.
- ↑ "Pondicherry University". http://www.pondiuni.edu.in/content/hostels-dining.
- Among The Stars-Life and Dreams of Kalpana Chawla by Gurdeep Pandher
- India's 50 Most Illustrious Women (ISBN 81-88086-19-3) by Indra Gupta
- Kalpana Chawla, a life (ISBN 0-14-333586-3) by Anil Padmanabhan
- The Edge of Time: The Authoritative Biography of Kalpana Chawla (ISBN 978-0976827917) by Jean-Pierre Harrison
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