Katherine Coleman Goble Johnson (born August 26, 1918) is an American physicist, space scientist, and mathematician who contributed to the United States' aeronautics and space programs with the early application of digital electronic computers at NASA. Known for accuracy in computerized celestial navigation, she calculated the trajectory for Project Mercury and the 1969 Apollo 11 flight to the Moon.
Katherine Johnson was born in 1918, to Joshua and Joylette Coleman in White Sulphur Springs, Greenbrier County, West Virginia. She was one of four children. Her father worked as a lumberman, a farmer, a handyman, and at the Greenbrier Hotel. Her mother was a former teacher. Early on, Katherine showed a talent for math. Her parents emphasized the importance of education. Because Greenbrier County did not offer schooling for black students past the eighth grade, the Coleman children attended high school in Institute, Kanawha County, West Virginia. The family split their time between Institute during the school year and White Sulphur Springs in the summer.
Katherine graduated high school at age 14. At age 15, she began attending West Virginia State College. As a student, Katherine took every math course the college offered. Multiple professors took Katherine under their wings, including chemist and mathematician Angie Turner King, who had also mentored Katherine throughout high school, and W.W. Schiefflin Claytor, the third African American to receive a PhD in math. Claytor added new math courses just for Katherine. She graduated summa cum laude in 1937, with degrees in math and French, at age 18. After graduation, Katherine moved to Marion, Virginia, to teach math, French, and music at a small grade school.
In 1938, Katherine became the first African American woman to desegregate the graduate school at West Virginia University in Morgantown, Monongalia County, West Virginia. She was one of three African American students, and the only female, selected to integrate the graduate school after the United States Supreme Court ruling, Missouri ex rel. Gaines v. Canada.
Dissatisfied with teaching, Johnson decided on a career in mathematics. At a family gathering, a relative mentioned that the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA), later to become NASA, was looking for new people. They especially wanted African American women for their Guidance and Navigation Department. Johnson was offered a job in 1953, and she immediately accepted.
According to oral history archived by the National Visionary Leadership Project:
"At first she worked in a pool of women performing math calculations. Katherine has referred to the women in the pool as virtual 'computers who wore skirts.' Their main job was to read the data from the black boxes of planes and carry out other precise mathematical tasks. Then one day, Katherine (and a colleague) were temporarily assigned to help the all-male flight research team. Katherine's knowledge of analytic geometry helped make quick allies of male bosses and colleagues to the extent that,'they forgot to return me to the pool.' While the racial and gender barriers were always there, Katherine says she ignored them. Katherine was assertive, asking to be included in editorial meetings (where no women had gone before.) She simply told people she had done the work and that she belonged."
From 1953 through 1958, Johnson worked as a "computer", doing analysis for topics such as gust alleviation for aircraft. Originally assigned to the West Area Computers section which was supervised by mathematician Dorothy Vaughan, she was reassigned to the Guidance and Control Division of Langley's Flight Research Division. From 1958 until she retired in 1983, she worked as an aerospace technologist. She later moved to the Spacecraft Controls Branch. She calculated the trajectory for the space flight of Alan Shepard, the first American in space, in 1959. She also calculated the launch window for his 1961 Mercury mission. She plotted backup navigational charts for astronauts in case of electronic failures. In 1962, when NASA used electronic computers for the first time to calculate John Glenn's orbit around Earth, officials called on her to verify the computer's numbers. Johnson later worked directly with digital computers. Her ability and reputation for accuracy helped to establish confidence in the new technology. She calculated the trajectory for the 1969 Apollo 11 flight to the Moon. During the moon landing, Johnson was at a meeting in the Pocono Mountains. She and a few others crowded around a small television screen watching the first steps on the moon. In 1970, Johnson worked on Apollo 13's mission to the Moon. Once the mission was aborted, Johnson's work on backup procedures and charts helped safely return the crew to Earth four days later. Later in her career, she worked on the Space Shuttle program, the Earth Resources Satellite, and on plans for a mission to Mars.
Johnson's social impact as a pioneer in space science and computing may be seen both from the honors she has received and the number of times her story is presented as a role model.
On November 16, 2015, President Barack Obama included Johnson on a list of 17 Americans to be awarded the Presidential Medal of Freedom in 2015. She was presented with the award on November 24, 2015, cited as a pioneering example of African American women in STEM.
In March 2016, principal photography began for Hidden Figures, a movie about Johnson and her African-American colleagues at NASA, based on the non-fiction book of the same name by Margot Lee Shetterly, set for release in January 2017.
On May 5, 2016, the new Katherine G. Johnson Computational Research Facility was formally dedicated at the agency’s Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia. This occurred on the 55th anniversary of Alan Shepard's historic rocket launch and splash down, which Johnson helped make possible.
In 1939, she married James Francis Goble and started a family. The Gobles had three daughters: Constance, Joylette, and Katherine. In 1956, James Goble died of an inoperable brain tumor. In 1959, she married Lt. Colonel James A. Johnson and continued her career at NASA. She sang in the choir of Carver Presbyterian Church for fifty years, and is a member of Alpha Kappa Alpha Sorority. Johnson and her husband, who have six grandchildren and four great-grandchildren, live in Hampton, Virginia, as of 2016.
- 1953–1986 NASA Langley Research Center, Virginia
- 1953–1958 Computer (mathematician), Langley Research Center with the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA)
- 1958–1986, Aerospace Technologist, NASA
- 1952–1953 Substitute math teacher for Newport News, VA, public schools
- 1936–1952 Teacher in rural Virginia and West Virginia high schools and elementary schools
- 1932 - West Virginia State High School
- 1937 - West Virginia State University (was West Virginia State College), BS in Mathematics and French, summa cum laude
- 1940 - West Virginia University graduate program in mathematics
- 2015, Presidential Medal of Freedom
- 2010, Honorary Doctorate of Science from Old Dominion University, Norfolk, Virginia
- 2006, Honorary Doctor of Science by the Capitol College, Laurel, Maryland
- 1999, West Virginia State College Outstanding Alumnus of the Year
- 1998, Honorary Doctor of Laws, from SUNY Farmingdale
- 1986, NASA Langley Research Center Special Achievement award
- 1985, NASA Langley Research Center Special Achievement award
- 1984, NASA Langley Research Center Special Achievement award
- 1980, NASA Langley Research Center Special Achievement award
- 1971, NASA Langley Research Center Special Achievement award
- 1967, Apollo Group Achievement Award – this award included one of only 300 flags flown to the moon on board the Apollo 11
- 1967, NASA Lunar Orbiter Spacecraft and Operations team award – for pioneering work in the field of navigation problems supporting the five spacecraft that orbited and mapped the moon in preparation for the Apollo program
- Dorothy Vaughan
- Annie Easley
- List of African-American women in STEM fields
- List of West Virginia University alumni
- ↑ 1.0 1.1 "Katherine Johnson - Oral History". http://www.visionaryproject.org/johnsonkatherine/.
- ↑ 2.0 2.1 Gale, Thomas (2005). "Johnson, Katherine Coleman Goble". Cengage Learning. http://www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-2694600029.html.
- ↑ 3.0 3.1 3.2 Gutman, David (December 26, 2015). "West Virginian of the Year: Katherine G. Johnson". Charleston Gazette-Mail. http://www.wvgazettemail.com/news/20151226/west-virginian-of-the-year-katherine-g-johnson.
- ↑ Gutman, David (November 16, 2015). "WV native, NASA mathematician to receive Presidential Medal of Freedom". Charleston Gazette-Mail. http://www.wvgazettemail.com/article/20151116/GZ01/151119605/1101.
- ↑ "Missouri ex rel. Gaines v. Canada 305 U.S. 337 (1938)". 1938. https://supreme.justia.com/cases/federal/us/305/337/case.html.
- ↑ 6.0 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 “Oral History Archive: Katherine Johnson”, 2005, National Visionary Leadership Project.
- ↑ “She Was a Computer When Computers Wore Skirts”, by: Jim Hodges, published by NASA Langley, 2008
- ↑ 8.0 8.1 8.2 "Katherine Johnson". NASA. http://crgis.ndc.nasa.gov/historic/Katherine_Johnson. Retrieved August 2, 2015.
- ↑ "Katherine Johnson:The Girl Who Loved to Count". NASA. http://www.nasa.gov/feature/katherine-johnson-the-girl-who-loved-to-count. Retrieved June 1, 2016.
- ↑ 10.0 10.1 Smith, Yvette (November 24, 2015). "Katherine Johnson: The Girl Who Loved to Count". NASA. http://www.nasa.gov/feature/katherine-johnson-the-girl-who-loved-to-count.
- ↑ "Makers Profile: Katherine G. Johnson". http://www.makers.com/katherine-g-johnson. Retrieved May 24, 2015.
- ↑ “Mop Top” the “Hip Hop” Scientist Celebrates African-Americans in the Sciences: Katherine G. Johnson, 2003
- ↑ Katherine G. Johnson, Human Computer
- ↑ “black history... katherine g johnson (1918 - retired)”, UK-based Planet Science
- ↑ “Katherine G. Johnson: Physicist, Space Scientist, Mathematician” Oracle Think Quest Education Foundation Library
- ↑ Vivian Ovelton Sammons, Blacks In Science And Medicine, 1989 (Taylor & Francis), ISBN 0-89116-665-3
- ↑ Katherine Johnson, Computer and Pioneer December 23, 2009, Katysblog
- ↑ “BLACK CONTRIBUTORS TO SCIENCE AND ENERGY TECHNOLOGY” 1979, anonymous, U.S. Department Of Energy U.S. Government Printing Office (ERIC electronic document)
- ↑ “BLACK CONTRIBUTORS TO SCIENCE AND ENERGY TECHNOLOGY” 1979, anonymous, U.S. Department Of Energy U.S. Government Printing Office (manually scanned images)
- ↑ Ford, Knatokie (November 30, 2015). "Honoring NASA's Katherine Johnson, STEM Pioneer". The White House. https://www.whitehouse.gov/blog/2015/11/25/honoring-nasas-katherine-johnson-stem-pioneer.
- ↑ "Hidden Figures (2017)". http://www.imdb.com/title/tt4846340/.
- ↑ http://www.nasa.gov/press-release/nasa-dedicates-facility-to-mathematician-presidential-medal-winner
- ↑ Phil Helsel - "Obama honoring Spielberg, Streisand and more with medal of freedom," NBC News, November 24, 2015. Retrieved November 25, 2015
- ↑ Live, Learn, Pursue Passion - NASA Mathematician preps Class of 2006 to find its mission, Capitol Chronicle, Summer 2006, Capitol College (12 pages, PDF format)
- ↑ 25.0 25.1 African-American Registry, August 26, Katherine G. Johnson (2006)
- ↑ 26.0 26.1 26.2 26.3 26.4 Personal communication, 2009, NASA
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