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For missions flown by the Soviet Buran spacecraft, sometimes referred to as a space shuttle, see List of Buran missions.
Space Shuttle Columbia launching

Launch of Space Shuttle Columbia on 12 April 1981 at Pad 39A for mission STS-1

The Space Shuttle was a partially reusable low Earth orbital spacecraft system operated by the U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Its official program name was Space Transportation System, taken from a 1969 plan for a system of reusable spacecraft of which it was the only item funded for development.[1] Operational missions launched numerous satellites (including the Hubble Space Telescope), conducted science experiments in orbit, and participated in construction and servicing of the International Space Station (ISS). The first of four orbital test flights occurred in 1981, leading to operational flights beginning in 1982.

From 1981 to 2011 a total of 135 missions were flown, launched from Kennedy Space Center (KSC) in Florida. During that time the fleet totaled 1,322 days, 19 hours, 21 minutes and 23 seconds of flight time.[2] The longest orbital flight of the shuttle was STS-80 at 17 days 15 hours, while the shortest flight was STS-51-L at one minute 13 seconds, cut short when the Space Shuttle Challenger broke apart during launch. The shuttles docked with Russian space station Mir nine times and visited the ISS 37 times. The highest altitude achieved by the shuttle was 350 miles when servicing the Hubble Space Telescope.[3] The program flew a total of 355 people representing 16 countries.[4] The Kennedy Space Center served as the landing site for 78 missions, while 54 missions landed at Edwards Air Force Base in California and once at White Sands, New Mexico.[5]

The first orbiter, Enterprise, was built solely for atmospheric flight tests and had no orbital capability. Four fully operational orbiters were initially built: Columbia, Challenger, Discovery, and Atlantis. Challenger and Columbia were destroyed in mission accidents in 1986 and 2003 respectively, killing a total of fourteen astronauts. A fifth operational orbiter, Endeavour, was built in 1991 to replace Challenger. The Space Shuttle was retired from service upon the conclusion of STS-135 by Atlantis on 21 July 2011.Template:Sfn

Flight numberingEdit

Shuttle profiles

Profiles of all five orbiters at launch.

The U.S. Space Shuttle program was officially referred to as the Space Transportation System (STS). Specific shuttle missions were therefore designated with the prefix "STS".[2] Initially, the launches were given sequential numbers indicating order of launch, such as STS-7. Subsequent to the Apollo 13 mishap, due to NASA Administrator James M. Beggs' triskaidekaphobia and consequent unwillingness to number a forthcoming flight as STS-13,[6][7][8][9] beginning in 1984, each mission was assigned a code, such as STS-41-B, with the first digit indicating the federal fiscal year offset into the program (so 41-B was scheduled for FY 1984, 51-L originally for FY 1985 and the third flight in FY 1995 would have been named 151-C), the second digit indicating the launch site (1 was Kennedy Space Center and 2 was Space Launch Complex (SLC) 6 at Vandenberg Air Force Base, although Vandenberg was never used), and the letter indicating scheduling sequence.[10] These codes were assigned when the launches were initially scheduled and were not changed as missions were delayed or rescheduled.Template:Sfn The codes were adopted from STS-41-B through STS-51-L, and the sequential numbers were used internally at NASA on all processing paperwork.

After the Challenger disaster, NASA returned to using a sequential numbering system, with the number counting from the beginning of the STS program. Unlike the initial system, however, the numbers were assigned based on the initial mission schedule, and did not always reflect actual launch order. This numbering scheme started at 26, with the first flight as STS-26R—the R suffix stood for "reflight" to disambiguate from prior missions. The suffix was used for two years through STS-33R, then the R was dropped.Template:Sfn As a result of the changes in systems, flights under different numbering systems could have the same number with one having a letter appended, e.g. flight STS-51 (a mission carried out by Discovery in 1993) was many years after STS-51-A (Discovery's second flight in 1984).Template:Sfn

Shuttle flightsEdit

Test flightsEdit

Main article: Approach and Landing Tests

The Approach and Landing Test Programme encompassed 16 separate tests of Enterprise, covering taxi tests, unmanned and manned flights on the Shuttle Carrier Aircraft, and finally the free flight tests. The following list includes the free-flight tests, durations listed count only the orbiter free-flight time. The list does not include total time aloft along with airborne time atop of the Boeing 747 Shuttle Carrier Aircraft (SCA).

Order Launch date Mission Shuttle Crew Duration Landing site Notes Sources
1 12 August 1977 ALT-12
Enterprise 1977 Approach and Landing Test mission patch.png
Enterprise 2 00d 00h 05m Edwards
  • First free flight
  • First non-captive flight of Enterprise
Template:Sfn[11]Template:Sfn[12]
2 13 September 1977 ALT-13
Enterprise 1977 Approach and Landing Test mission patch.png
Enterprise 2 00d 00h 05m Edwards
  • Second free flight
Template:Sfn[11]
3 23 September 1977 ALT-14
Enterprise 1977 Approach and Landing Test mission patch.png
Enterprise 2 00d 00h 05m Edwards
  • Third free flight
Template:Sfn[11]
4 12 October 1977 ALT-15
Enterprise 1977 Approach and Landing Test mission patch.png
Enterprise 2 00d 00h 02m Edwards
  • Fourth free flight
  • First flight without tailcone (operational configuration)
Template:Sfn[11][12]Template:Sfn
5 26 October 1977 ALT-16
Enterprise 1977 Approach and Landing Test mission patch.png
Enterprise 2 00d 00h 02m Edwards
  • Final free flight
  • Final non-captive flight of Enterprise
Template:Sfn[11]Template:Sfn

Launches and orbital flightsEdit

Order Launch date Mission Shuttle Crew[lower-alpha 1] Duration Landing site Notes Sources
1 Template:Sort
12:00:04 UTC
07:00:04 EST
Template:Sort Columbia 2 02d 06h Edwards
  • First reusable orbital spacecraft flight
  • First flight of Columbia
Template:SfnTemplate:SfnTemplate:Sfn
2 Template:Sort
15:10:00 UTC
10:10:00 EST
Template:Sort Columbia 2 02d 06h Edwards
  • First reuse of a manned orbital space vehicle
  • First test of Canadarm robot arm
  • Truncated due to fuel cell problem
Template:SfnTemplate:SfnTemplate:Sfn
3 Template:Sort
16:00:00 UTC
11:00:00 EST
Template:Sort Columbia 2 08d 00h White Sands
  • Shuttle R&D flight
  • First and only landing at White Sands, New Mexico
Template:SfnTemplate:Sfn[13]
4 Template:Sort
15:00:00 UTC
11:00:00 EDT
Template:Sort Columbia 2 07d 01h Edwards
  • Last shuttle R&D flight
  • First Department of Defense (DoD) payload
Template:Sfn[14][15]Template:Sfn
5 Template:Sort
12:19:00 UTC
07:19:00 EST
Template:Sort Columbia 4 05d 02h Edwards Template:SfnTemplate:Sfn[16]Template:Sfn
6 Template:Sort
18:30:00 UTC
13:30:00 EST
Template:Sort Challenger 4 05d 00h Edwards [17]Template:Sfn
7 Template:Sort
11:33:00 UTC
07:33:00 EDT
Template:Sort Challenger 5 06d 02h Edwards
  • First US woman in space Sally Ride
  • Multiple comsat deployments
  • First deployment and retrieval of a Shuttle Pallet Satellite
[18]Template:Sfn
8 Template:Sort
06:32:00 UTC
02:32:00 EDT
Template:Sort Challenger 5 06d 01h Edwards
  • Comsat deployment
  • First flight of an African American in space, Guion Bluford
  • Test of robot arm on heavy payloads with Payload Flight Test Article
  • First night landing
[19]Template:Sfn
9 Template:Sort
16:00:00 UTC
11:00:00 EST
Template:Sort Columbia 6 10d 07h Edwards
  • First Spacelab mission
  • Flight of Ulf Merbold (first European Space Agency Astronaut on a shuttle mission)
[20]Template:Sfn
10 Template:Sort
13:00:00 UTC
08:00:00 EST
Template:Sort Challenger 5 07d 23h Kennedy [21]Template:Sfn
11 Template:Sort
13:58:00 UTC
08:58:00 EST
Template:Sort Challenger 5 06d 23h Edwards [22][23]Template:Sfn
12 Template:Sort
12:41:50 UTC
08:41:50 EDT
Template:Sort Discovery 6 06d 00h Edwards
  • Multiple comsat deployments
  • First flight of Discovery
  • Test of OAST-1 Solar Array
[24]Template:Sfn
13 Template:Sort
11:03:00 UTC
07:03:00 EDT
Template:Sort Challenger 7 08d 05h Kennedy [25]Template:Sfn
14 Template:Sort
12:15:00 UTC
07:15:00 EST
Template:Sort Discovery 5 07d 23h Kennedy
  • Multiple comsat deployments
  • Retrieval of two other comsats (Palapa B2 and Westar VI), which were subsequently refurbished on Earth and reflown
[26]Template:Sfn
15 Template:Sort
19:50:00 UTC
14:50:00 EST
Template:Sort Discovery 5 03d 01h Kennedy [14][27]Template:Sfn
16 Template:Sort
13:59:05 UTC
08:59:05 EST
Template:Sort Discovery 7 06d 23h Kennedy [28]Template:Sfn
17 Template:Sort
16:02:18 UTC
12:02:18 EDT
Template:Sort Challenger 7 07d 00h Edwards
  • First mission with Spacelab module in a fully operational configuration
  • Conducted experiments in microgravity
[29]Template:Sfn
18 Template:Sort
11:33:00 UTC
07:33:00 EDT
Template:Sort Discovery 7 07d 01h Edwards [30]Template:Sfn
19 Template:Sort
22:00:00 UTC
18:00:00 EDT
Template:Sort Challenger 7 07d 22h Edwards
  • Spacelab mission
  • Abort to Orbit. Faulty temperature sensor incorrectly indicated that fuel turbine discharge temperature exceeded the limit. Therefore, one main engine was shut down at T+345 s, resulting in a much lower orbit than planned.
  • All mission objectives achieved
[31]Template:Sfn
20 Template:Sort
10:58:01 UTC
06:58:01 EDT
Template:Sort Discovery 5 07d 02h Edwards [32]Template:Sfn
21 Template:Sort
15:15:30 UTC
11:15:30 EDT
Template:Sort Atlantis 5 04d 01h Edwards [14][33]Template:Sfn
22 Template:Sort
17:00:00 UTC
12:00:00 EST
Template:Sort Challenger 8 07d 00h Edwards
  • Largest crew on a spaceflight
  • Third flight of Spacelab
  • Spacelab-D1 microgravity experiments
  • Mission funded by Germany
  • Last successful mission of Challenger
  • First Dutchman in space, Wubbo Ockels
[34]Template:Sfn
23 Template:Sort
24:29:00 UTC
19:29:00 EST
Template:Sort Atlantis 7 06d 21h Edwards [35]Template:Sfn
24 Template:Sort
11:55:00 UTC
06:55:00 EST
Template:Sort Columbia 7 06d 02h Edwards [36]Template:Sfn
25 Template:Sort
16:38:00 UTC
11:38:00 EST
Template:Sort Challenger 7 00d 00h 01m 13s Did not land [lower-alpha 2] [37]Template:Sfn
26 Template:Sort
15:37:00 UTC
11:37:00 EDT
Template:Sort Discovery 5 04d 01h Edwards
  • Tracking and data relay satellite deployment
  • First post-Challenger flight
[38]Template:Sfn
27 Template:Sort
14:30:34 UTC
09:30:34 EST
Template:Sort Atlantis 5 04d 09h Edwards
  • Third classified DoD mission
  • Lacrosse 1 deployment
[14][39]Template:Sfn
28 Template:Sort
14:57:00 UTC
09:57:00 EST
Template:Sort Discovery 5 04d 23h Edwards
  • Tracking and data relay satellite deployment with attached Inertial Upper Stage (IUS)
  • IMAX camera
  • Space Station Heat Pipe Advanced Radiator Element I space station radiator experiment
[40]Template:Sfn
29 Template:Sort
18:46:59 UTC
14:46:59 EDT
Template:Sort Atlantis 5 04d 00h Edwards [41]Template:Sfn
30 Template:Sort
12:37:00 UTC
08:37:00 EDT
Template:Sort Columbia 5 05d 01h Edwards [14][42]Template:Sfn
31 Template:Sort
16:53:40 UTC
12:53:40 EDT
Template:Sort Atlantis 5 04d 23h Edwards
  • Galileo Jupiter probe deployment
  • IMAX camera
[43]Template:Sfn
32 Template:Sort
24:23:30 UTC
19:23:30 EST
Template:Sort Discovery 5 05d 00h Edwards
  • Fifth classified DoD mission
  • Deployment of Magnum
[14][44]Template:Sfn
33 Template:Sort
12:35:00 UTC
07:35:00 EST
Template:Sort Columbia 5 10d 21h Edwards [45]Template:Sfn
34 Template:Sort
07:50:22 UTC
02:50:22 EST
Template:Sort Atlantis 5 04d 10h Edwards [14][46]Template:Sfn
35 Template:Sort
12:33:51 UTC
08:33:51 EDT
Template:Sort Discovery 5 05d 01h Edwards [47]Template:Sfn
36 Template:Sort
11:47:15 UTC
07:47:15 EDT
Template:Sort Discovery 5 04d 02h Edwards [48]Template:Sfn
37 Template:Sort
23:48:15 UTC
18:48:15 EST
Template:Sort Atlantis 5 04d 21h Kennedy
  • Seventh classified DoD mission
  • Likely SDS2-2 deployed
[14][49]Template:Sfn
38 Template:Sort
06:49:01 UTC
01:49:01 EST
Template:Sort Columbia 7 08d 23h Edwards
  • Use of ASTRO-1 observatory
[50]Template:Sfn
39 Template:Sort
14:22:45 UTC
09:22:45 EST
Template:Sort Atlantis 5 05d 23h Edwards [51]Template:Sfn
40 Template:Sort
11:33:14 UTC
07:33:14 EDT
Template:Sort Discovery 7 08d 07h Kennedy
  • First unclassified DoD mission
  • Military science experiments
[14][52]Template:Sfn
41 Template:Sort
13:24:51 UTC
09:24:51 EDT
Template:Sort Columbia 7 09d 02h Edwards [53]Template:Sfn
42 Template:Sort
15:02:00 UTC
11:02:00 EDT
Template:Sort Atlantis 5 08d 21h Kennedy [54]Template:Sfn
43 Template:Sort
23:11:04 UTC
19:11:04 EDT
Template:Sort Discovery 5 05d 08h Edwards [55]Template:Sfn
44 Template:Sort
23:44:00 UTC
18:44:00 EST
Template:Sort Atlantis 6 06d 22h Edwards [56]Template:Sfn
45 Template:Sort
14:52:33 UTC
09:52:33 EST
Template:Sort Discovery 7 08d 01h Edwards [57]Template:Sfn
46 Template:Sort
13:13:40 UTC
08:13:40 EST
Template:Sort Atlantis 7 08d 22h Kennedy [58]Template:Sfn
47 Template:Sort
23:40:00 UTC
19:40:00 EDT
Template:Sort Endeavour 7 08d 21h Edwards [59]Template:Sfn
48 Template:Sort
16:12:23 UTC
12:12:23 EDT
Template:Sort Columbia 7 13d 19h Kennedy [60]Template:Sfn
49 Template:Sort
13:56:48 UTC
09:56:48 EDT
Template:Sort Atlantis 7 07d 23h Kennedy [61]Template:Sfn
50 Template:Sort
14:23:00 UTC
10:23:00 EDT
Template:Sort Endeavour 7 07d 22h Kennedy
  • Spacelab-J
  • First flight of an African-American woman in space, Mae Jemison
  • Japan funded mission
[62]Template:Sfn
51 Template:Sort
17:09:39 UTC
13:09:39 EDT
Template:Sort Columbia 6 09d 20h Kennedy
  • LAGEOS II deployment
  • Microgravity experiments
[63]Template:Sfn
52 Template:Sort
13:24:00 UTC
08:24:00 EST
Template:Sort Discovery 5 07d 07h Edwards
  • Partially classified 10th and final DoD mission
  • Likely deployment of SDS2 satellite
[14][64]Template:Sfn
53 Template:Sort
13:59:30 UTC
08:59:30 EST
Template:Sort Endeavour 5 05d 23h Kennedy [65]Template:Sfn
54 Template:Sort
05:29:00 UTC
01:29:00 EDT
Template:Sort Discovery 5 09d 06h Kennedy [66]Template:Sfn
55 Template:Sort
14:50:00 UTC
10:50:00 EDT
Template:Sort Columbia 7 09d 23h Edwards [67]Template:Sfn
56 Template:Sort
13:07:22 UTC
09:07:22 EDT
Template:Sort Endeavour 6 09d 23h Kennedy
  • Scientific Experiments aboard the SPACEHAB module
  • Retrieval of EURECA
[68]Template:Sfn
57 Template:Sort
11:45:00 UTC
07:45:00 EDT
Template:Sort Discovery 5 09d 20h Kennedy
  • ACTS satellite deployed
  • Orbiting Retrievable Far and Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrometer with IMAX camera deployed
[69]Template:Sfn
58 Template:Sort
14:53:10 UTC
10:53:10 EDT
Template:Sort Columbia 7 14d 00h Edwards [70]Template:Sfn
59 Template:Sort
09:27:00 UTC
04:27:00 EST
Template:Sort Endeavour 7 10d 19h Kennedy [71]Template:Sfn
60 Template:Sort
12:10:00 UTC
07:10:00 EST
Template:Sort Discovery 6 07d 06h Kennedy [72]Template:Sfn
61 Template:Sort
13:53:00 UTC
08:53:00 EST
Template:Sort Columbia 5 13d 23h Kennedy
  • Microgravity experiments
[73]Template:Sfn
62 Template:Sort
11:05:00 UTC
07:05:00 EDT
Template:Sort Endeavour 6 11d 05h Edwards
  • Experiments aboard Shuttle Radar Laboratory-1
[74]Template:Sfn
63 Template:Sort
04:43:00 UTC
00:43:00 EDT
Template:Sort Columbia 7 14d 17h Kennedy [75]Template:Sfn
64 Template:Sort
22:22:05 UTC
18:22:05 EDT
Template:Sort Discovery 6 10d 22h Edwards
  • Multiple science experiments
  • SPARTAN
[76]Template:Sfn
65 Template:Sort
11:16:00 UTC
07:16:00 EDT
Template:Sort Endeavour 6 11d 05h Edwards
  • Experiments aboard Space Radar Laboratory-2
[77]Template:Sfn
66 Template:Sort
16:59:43 UTC
11:59:43 EST
Template:Sort Atlantis 6 10d 22h Edwards
  • ATLAS-3 science platform
[78]Template:Sfn
67 Template:Sort
05:22:04 UTC
00:22:04 EST
Template:Sort Discovery 6 08d 06h Kennedy [79]Template:Sfn
68 Template:Sort
06:38:13 UTC
01:38:13 EST
Template:Sort Endeavour 7 16d 15h Edwards
  • ASTRO-2 Deployment
[80]Template:Sfn
69 Template:Sort
19:32:19 UTC
15:32:19 EDT
Template:Sort Atlantis 7/8 09d 19h Kennedy
  • First Shuttle-Mir docking
[81]Template:Sfn
70 Template:Sort
13:41:55 UTC
09:41:55 EDT
Template:Sort Discovery 5 08d 22h Kennedy [82]Template:Sfn
71 Template:Sort
15:09:00 UTC
11:09:00 EDT
Template:Sort Endeavour 5 10d 20h Kennedy [83]Template:Sfn
72 Template:Sort
13:53:00 UTC
09:53:00 EDT
Template:Sort Columbia 7 15d 21h Kennedy [84]Template:Sfn
73 Template:Sort
12:30:43 UTC
07:30:43 EST
Template:Sort Atlantis 5 08d 04h Kennedy
  • Second Shuttle-Mir docking
  • Delivered docking module
  • Delivered IMAX cargo bay camera
Template:Sfn[85]
74 Template:Sort
09:41:00 UTC
04:41:00 EST
Template:Sort Endeavour 6 08d 22h Kennedy [86]Template:Sfn
75 Template:Sort
20:18:00 UTC
15:18:00 EST
Template:Sort Columbia 7 15d 17h Kennedy
  • Tethered satellite reflight, lost due to broken tether
[87]Template:Sfn
76 Template:Sort
08:13:04 UTC
03:13:04 EST
Template:Sort Atlantis 6/5 09d 05h Edwards
  • Shuttle-Mir docking
[88]Template:Sfn
77 Template:Sort
10:30:00 UTC
06:30:00 EDT
Template:Sort Endeavour 6 10d 00h Kennedy [89]Template:Sfn
78 Template:Sort
14:49:00 UTC
10:49:00 EDT
Template:Sort Columbia 7 16d 21h Kennedy [90]Template:Sfn
79 Template:Sort
08:54:49 UTC
04:54:49 EDT
Template:Sort Atlantis 6/6 10d 03h Kennedy
  • Shuttle-Mir docking
[91]Template:Sfn
80 Template:Sort
19:55:47 UTC
14:55:47 EST
Template:Sort Columbia 5 17d 15h Kennedy
  • Wake Shield Facility
  • Orbiting and Retrievable Far and Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrometer-Shuttle Pallet Satellite (ORFEUS) II
[92]Template:Sfn
81 Template:Sort
09:27:23 UTC
04:27:23 EST
Template:Sort Atlantis 6/6 10d 04h Kennedy
  • Shuttle-Mir docking
[93]Template:Sfn
82 Template:Sort
08:55:17 UTC
03:55:17 EST
Template:Sort Discovery 7 09d 23h Kennedy [94]Template:Sfn
83 Template:Sort
19:20:32 UTC
14:20:32 EST
Template:Sort Columbia 7 03d 23h Kennedy
  • Spacelab mission
  • Truncated due to fuel cell problem
[95]Template:Sfn
84 Template:Sort
08:07:48 UTC
04:07:48 EDT
Template:Sort Atlantis 7/7 09d 05h Kennedy
  • Shuttle-Mir docking
[96]Template:Sfn
85 Template:Sort
18:02:00 UTC
14:02:00 EDT
Template:Sort Columbia 7 15d 16h Kennedy [97]Template:Sfn
86 Template:Sort
14:41:00 UTC
10:41:00 EDT
Template:Sort Discovery 6 11d 20h Kennedy
  • Deployed and retrieved Cryogenic Infrared Spectrometers and Telescopes for the Atmosphere-Shuttle Pallet Satellite-2 (CRISTA-SPAS)
[98]Template:Sfn
87 Template:Sort
14:34:19 UTC
10:34:19 EDT
Template:Sort Atlantis 7/7 10d 19h Kennedy
  • Shuttle-Mir docking
[99]Template:Sfn
88 Template:Sort
19:46:00 UTC
14:46:00 EST
Template:Sort Columbia 6 15d 16h Kennedy [100]Template:Sfn
89 Template:Sort
02:48:15 UTC[lower-alpha 3]
21:48:15 EST
Template:Sort Endeavour 7/7 08d 19h Kennedy
  • Shuttle-Mir docking
[101]Template:Sfn
90 Template:Sort
18:19:00 UTC
14:19:00 EDT
Template:Sort Columbia 7 15d 21h Kennedy [102]Template:Sfn
91 Template:Sort
22:06:24 UTC
18:06:24 EDT
Template:Sort Discovery 6/7 09d 19h Kennedy
  • Last Shuttle-Mir docking
[103]Template:Sfn
92 Template:Sort
19:19:34 UTC
14:19:34 EST
Template:Sort Discovery 7 08d 21h Kennedy [104]Template:Sfn
93 Template:Sort
08:35:34 UTC
03:35:34 EST
Template:Sort Endeavour 6 11d 19h Kennedy [105]Template:Sfn
94 Template:Sort
10:49:42 UTC
06:49:42 EDT
Template:Sort Discovery 7 09d 19h Kennedy [106]Template:Sfn
95 Template:Sort
04:31:00 UTC
00:31:00 EDT
Template:Sort Columbia 5 04d 22h Kennedy [107]Template:Sfn
96 Template:Sort
24:50:00 UTC
19:50:00 EST
Template:Sort Discovery 7 07d 23h Kennedy [108]Template:Sfn
97 Template:Sort
16:43:40 UTC
12:43:40 EDT
Template:Sort Endeavour 6 11d 05h Kennedy [109]Template:Sfn
98 Template:Sort
10:11:10 UTC
06:11:10 EDT
Template:Sort Atlantis 7 09d 21h Kennedy [110]Template:Sfn
99 Template:Sort
12:45:47 UTC
08:45:47 EDT
Template:Sort Atlantis 7 11d 19h Kennedy [111]Template:Sfn
100 Template:Sort
23:17:00 UTC
18:17:00 EST
Template:Sort Discovery 7 12d 21h Edwards [112]Template:Sfn
101 Template:Sort
03:06:01 UTC[lower-alpha 3]
22:06:01 EST
Template:Sort Endeavour 5 10d 19h Kennedy [113]Template:Sfn
102 Template:Sort
23:13:02 UTC
18:13:02 EST
Template:Sort Atlantis 5 12d 21h Edwards [114]Template:Sfn
103 Template:Sort
11:42:09 UTC
06:42:09 EST
Template:Sort Discovery 7/7 12d 19h Kennedy
  • ISS supply and crew rotation
[115]Template:Sfn
104 Template:Sort
18:40:42 UTC
14:40:42 EDT
Template:Sort Endeavour 7 11d 21h Edwards [116]Template:Sfn
105 Template:Sort
09:03:59 UTC
05:03:59 EDT
Template:Sort Atlantis 5 12d 18h Kennedy [117]Template:Sfn
106 Template:Sort
21:10:14 UTC
17:10:14 EDT
Template:Sort Discovery 7/7 11d 21h Kennedy
  • ISS supply and crew rotation
[118]Template:Sfn
107 Template:Sort
22:19:28 UTC
17:19:28 EST
Template:Sort Endeavour 7/7 11d 19h Kennedy
  • ISS supply and crew rotation
[119]Template:Sfn
108 Template:Sort
11:22:02 UTC
06:22:02 EST
Template:Sort Columbia 7 10d 22h Kennedy [120]Template:Sfn
109 Template:Sort
20:44:19 UTC
16:44:19 EDT
Template:Sort Atlantis 7 10d 19h Kennedy [121]Template:Sfn
110 Template:Sort
21:22:49 UTC
17:22:49 EDT
Template:Sort Endeavour 7/7 13d 20h Edwards [122]Template:Sfn
111 Template:Sort
19:45:51 UTC
15:45:51 EDT
Template:Sort Atlantis 6 10d 19h Kennedy [123]Template:Sfn
112 Template:Sort
24:49:47 UTC
19:49:47 EST
Template:Sort Endeavour 7/7 13d 18h Kennedy [124]Template:Sfn
113 Template:Sort
15:39:00 UTC
10:39:00 EST
Template:Sort Columbia 7 15d 22h Did not land [lower-alpha 2] [125]Template:Sfn
114 Template:Sort
14:39:00 UTC
10:39:00 EDT
Template:Sort Discovery 7 13d 21h Edwards
  • First post Columbia flight
  • Flight safety Evaluation/testing
  • ISS supply/repair
  • MPLM Raffaello
[126]Template:Sfn
115 Template:Sort
18:37:55 UTC
14:37:55 EDT
Template:Sort Discovery 7/6 12d 18h Kennedy
  • ISS Flight ULF1.1: supply and crew rotation
  • MPLM Leonardo
[127]Template:Sfn
116 Template:Sort
15:14:55 UTC
11:14:55 EDT
Template:Sort Atlantis 6 11d 19h Kennedy [128]Template:Sfn
117 Template:Sort
24:47:35 UTC
20:47:35 EDT
Template:Sort Discovery 7/7 12d 21h Kennedy [129]Template:Sfn
118 Template:Sort
23:38:04 UTC
19:38:04 EDT
Template:Sort Atlantis 7/7 13d 20h Edwards [130]Template:Sfn
119 Template:Sort
22:36:42 UTC
18:36:42 EDT
Template:Sort Endeavour 7 12d 18h Kennedy [131]Template:Sfn
120 Template:Sort
03:38:19 UTC[lower-alpha 3]
23:38:19 EDT
Template:Sort Discovery 7/7 15d 02h Kennedy [132]Template:Sfn
121 Template:Sort
19:45:30 UTC
14:45:30 EST
Template:Sort Atlantis 7/7 12d 18h Kennedy [133]Template:Sfn
122 Template:Sort
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123 Template:Sort
21:02:12 UTC
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24:55:39 UTC
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18:01:56 UTC
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127 Template:Sort
22:03:10 UTC
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  • ISS assembly flight 2J/A: Japanese Experiment Modoules Exposed Facility (EF) and ELM ES
[140]Template:Sfn
128 Template:Sort
03:59:37 UTC[lower-alpha 3]
23:59:37 EDT
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  • ISS assembly flight 17A: MPLM Leonardo
  • Crew rotation
  • Final landing at Edwards AFB
[141]Template:Sfn
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19:28:01 UTC
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09:14:07 UTC
04:14:07 EST
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10:21:25 UTC
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18:20:09 UTC
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133 Template:Sort
21:53:24 UTC
16:53:24 EST
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134 Template:Sort
24:55:42 UTC
20:55:42 EDT
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135 Template:Sort
15:29:04 UTC
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Template:Sort Atlantis 4 12d 18h Kennedy [148]Template:Sfn[149]

Cancelled missionsEdit

Main article: Canceled Space Shuttle missions

One initial emergency flight abort (RTLS) sub-orbital test mission was canceled due to high risk. Many other planned missions were canceled due to the late development of the shuttle, and the Challenger and Columbia disasters.

Four missions were cut short by a day or more while in orbit: STS-2 (equipment failure),Template:Sfn STS-35 (weather),[50] STS-44 (equipment failure),Template:Sfn and STS-83 (equipment failure, relaunched as STS-94).Template:Sfn

Contingency missionsEdit

Space shuttles Atlantis (STS-125) and Endeavour (STS-400) on launch pads

Atlantis and Endeavour on LC-39A and LC-39B. Endeavour was slated to launch for STS-400 rescue mission should Atlantis (STS-125) be found unable to return safely to Earth.

Main article: STS-3xx

STS-300 was the designation for the Space Shuttle Launch on Need (LON) missions to be launched on short notice for STS-114 and STS-121, in the event that the shuttle became disabled or damaged and could not safely return to Earth.[150][151][152] The rescue flight for STS-115, if needed, would have been STS-301. After STS-115, the rescue mission designations were based on the corresponding regular mission that would be replaced should the rescue mission be needed. For example, the STS-116 rescue mission was branded STS-317, because the normal mission scheduled after STS-116 was STS-117. Should the rescue mission have been needed, the crew and vehicle for STS-117 would assume the rescue mission profile and become STS-317. All potential rescue missions were to be launched with a crew of four, and would return with ten or eleven crew members, depending on the number of crew launched on the rescued shuttle. Missions were expected to last approximately eleven days. None of the planned contingency missions was ever flown.[153]

No contingency mission was planned for STS-135, the final shuttle mission. Instead, NASA planned to effect any required rescues one-by-one, using Russian Soyuz spacecraft.[154]

Flight Rescue Flight
STS-114 (Discovery) STS-300 (Atlantis)
STS-121 (Discovery) STS-300 (Atlantis)
STS-115 (Atlantis) STS-301 (Discovery)
STS-116 (Discovery) STS-317 (Atlantis)
STS-117 (Atlantis) STS-318 (Endeavour)
STS-118 (Endeavour) STS-322 (Discovery)
STS-120 (Discovery) STS-320 (Atlantis)Template:Refn
STS-122 (Atlantis) STS-323 (Discovery)Template:Refn
STS-123 (Endeavour) STS-324 (Discovery)
STS-124 (Discovery) STS-326 (Endeavour)
STS-125 (Atlantis) STS-400 (Endeavour)
STS-134 (Endeavour) STS-335 (Atlantis)

Flight statisticsEdit

Key
Template:Double-dagger  Test vehicle
Template:Dagger  Lost
Shuttle Designation Flights Flight days Orbits Longest flight First flight Last flight MIR/ISS
Docking
Sources
Flight Date Flight Date
Enterprise Template:Double-dagger OV-101 5 00d 00h 19m 0 00d 00h 05m ALT-12 12 August 1977 ALT-16 26 October 1977 – / – Template:Sfn[155][156][157]
Columbia Template:Dagger OV-102 28 300d 17h 47m 15s 4,808 17d 15h 53m 18s STS-1 12 April 1981 STS-107 16 January 2003 0 / 0 Template:Sfn[155][158][159]
Challenger Template:Dagger OV-099 10 62d 07h 56m 15s 995 08d 05h 23m 33s STS-6 4 April 1983 STS-51-L 28 January 1986 0 / 0 Template:Sfn[155][160][161]
Discovery OV-103 39 364d 22h 39m 29s 5,830 15d 02h 48m 08s STS-41-D 30 August 1984 STS-133 24 February 2011 1 / 13 Template:Sfn[155][162][163]
Atlantis OV-104 33 306d 14h 12m 43s 4,848 13d 20h 12m 44s STS-51-J 3 October 1985 STS-135 8 July 2011 7 / 12 Template:Sfn[155][164][165]
Endeavour OV-105 25 296d 03h 34m 02s 4,677 16d 15h 08m 48s STS-49 7 May 1992 STS-134 16 May 2011 1 / 12 Template:Sfn[155][166][167]
Total Template:N/a 135 1330d 18h 9m 44s 21,158 Template:N/a Template:N/a Template:N/a Template:N/a Template:N/a 9 / 37 Template:N/a

See alsoEdit

NotesEdit

  1. "Report of the Space Task Group, 1969". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. http://www.hq.nasa.gov/office/pao/History/taskgrp.html. Retrieved 26 November 2014. 
  2. 2.0 2.1 Malik, Tarik (21 July 2011). "NASA's Space Shuttle By the Numbers: 30 Years of a Spaceflight Icon". Space.com. http://www.space.com/12376-nasa-space-shuttle-program-facts-statistics.html. Retrieved 18 June 2014. 
  3. Pinchefsky, Carol (18 April 2012). "5 Horrifying Facts You Didn't Know About the Space Shuttle". Forbes. http://www.forbes.com/sites/carolpinchefsky/2012/04/18/5-horrifying-facts-you-didnt-know-about-the-space-shuttle/2/. Retrieved 6 January 2015. 
  4. "Space Shuttle Era Facts" (PDF). National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 2011. FS-2011-7-142-KSC. http://www.nasa.gov/pdf/566250main_2011.07.05%20SHUTTLE%20ERA%20FACTS.pdf. Retrieved 6 January 2015. 
  5. "Space Shuttle Launch and Landing". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. 11 September 2012. http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/launch/. Retrieved 6 January 2015. 
  6. "Robert L. Crippen" (PDF). NASA Johnson Space Center Oral History Project. Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center. 26 May 2006. http://www.jsc.nasa.gov/history/oral_histories/CrippenRL/CrippenRL_5-26-06.pdf. 
  7. "Terry J. Hart" (PDF). NASA Johnson Space Center Oral History Project. Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center. 10 April 2003. http://www.jsc.nasa.gov/history/oral_histories/HartTJ/HartTJ_4-10-03.pdf. 
  8. "Paul J. Weitz" (PDF). NASA Johnson Space Center Oral History Project. Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center. 26 March 2000. http://www.jsc.nasa.gov/history/oral_histories/WeitzPJ/PJW_3-26-00.pdf. 
  9. "James D. A. van Hoften" (PDF). NASA Johnson Space Center Oral History Project. Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center. 5 December 2007. http://www.jsc.nasa.gov/history/oral_histories/vanHoftenJD/vanHoftenJDA_12-5-07.pdf. 
  10. Norton, Lily (30 June 2011). "8 Surprising Space Shuttle Facts". Space.com. http://www.space.com/12127-8-surprising-space-shuttle-facts.html. Retrieved 15 December 2012. 
  11. 11.0 11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 Dumoulin, Jim. "Enterprise(OV-101)". Kennedy Space Center. http://science.ksc.nasa.gov/shuttle/resources/orbiters/enterprise.html. Retrieved 28 January 2013. 
  12. 12.0 12.1 Howell, Elizabeth (9 October 2012). "Enterprise: The Test Shuttle". Space.com. http://www.space.com/17983-space-shuttle-enterprise.html. Retrieved 28 January 2013. 
  13. Template:Cite news
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 14.3 14.4 14.5 14.6 14.7 14.8 14.9 Template:Cite journal
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  16. "Mission Archives: STS-5". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/archives/sts-5.html. Retrieved 16 December 2012. 
  17. "Mission Archives: STS-6". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/archives/sts-6.html. Retrieved 16 December 2012. 
  18. "Mission Archives: STS-7". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/archives/sts-7.html. Retrieved 16 December 2012. 
  19. "Mission Archives: STS-8". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/archives/sts-8.html. Retrieved 16 December 2012. 
  20. "Mission Archives: STS-9". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/archives/sts-9.html. Retrieved 16 December 2012. 
  21. "Mission Archives: STS-41B". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/archives/sts-41B.html. Retrieved 16 December 2012. 
  22. Template:Cite news
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  24. "Mission Archives: STS-41D". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/archives/sts-41D.html. Retrieved 16 December 2012. 
  25. "Mission Archives: STS-41G". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/archives/sts-41G.html. Retrieved 16 December 2012. 
  26. "Mission Archives: STS-51A". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/archives/sts-51A.html. Retrieved 16 December 2012. 
  27. "Mission Archives: STS-51C". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/archives/sts-51C.html. Retrieved 16 December 2012. 
  28. "Mission Archives: STS-41G". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/archives/sts-51D.html. Retrieved 16 December 2012. 
  29. "Mission Archives: STS-51B". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/archives/sts-51B.html. Retrieved 16 December 2012. 
  30. "Mission Archives: STS-51G". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/archives/sts-51G.html. Retrieved 16 December 2012. 
  31. "Mission Archives: STS-51F". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/archives/sts-51F.html. Retrieved 16 December 2012. 
  32. "Mission Archives: STS-51I". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/archives/sts-51I.html. Retrieved 16 December 2012. 
  33. "Mission Archives: STS-51J". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/archives/sts-51J.html. Retrieved 16 December 2012. 
  34. "Mission Archives: STS-61A". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/archives/sts-61A.html. Retrieved 16 December 2012. 
  35. "Mission Archives: STS-61B". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/archives/sts-61B.html. Retrieved 16 December 2012. 
  36. "Mission Archives: STS-61C". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/archives/sts-61C.html. Retrieved 16 December 2012. 
  37. "Mission Archives: STS-51L". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/archives/sts-51L.html. Retrieved 16 December 2012. 
  38. "Mission Archives: STS-26". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/archives/sts-26.html. Retrieved 16 December 2012. 
  39. "Mission Archives: STS-27". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/archives/sts-27.html. Retrieved 16 December 2012. 
  40. "Mission Archives: STS-29". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/archives/sts-29.html. Retrieved 16 December 2012. 
  41. "Mission Archives: STS-30". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/archives/sts-30.html. Retrieved 16 December 2012. 
  42. "Mission Archives: STS-28". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/archives/sts-28.html. Retrieved 16 December 2012. 
  43. "Mission Archives: STS-34". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/archives/sts-34.html. Retrieved 16 December 2012. 
  44. "Mission Archives: STS-33". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/archives/sts-33.html. Retrieved 16 December 2012. 
  45. "Mission Archives: STS-32". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/archives/sts-32.html. Retrieved 16 December 2012. 
  46. "Mission Archives: STS-36". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/archives/sts-36.html. Retrieved 16 December 2012. 
  47. "Mission Archives: STS-31". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/archives/sts-31.html. Retrieved 16 December 2012. 
  48. "Mission Archives: STS-41". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/archives/sts-41.html. Retrieved 16 December 2012. 
  49. "Mission Archives: STS-38". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/archives/sts-38.html. Retrieved 16 December 2012. 
  50. 50.0 50.1 "Mission Archives: STS-35". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/archives/sts-35.html. Retrieved 16 December 2012. 
  51. "Mission Archives: STS-37". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/archives/sts-37.html. Retrieved 16 December 2012. 
  52. "Mission Archives: STS-39". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/archives/sts-39.html. Retrieved 16 December 2012. 
  53. "Mission Archives: STS-40". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/archives/sts-40.html. Retrieved 18 December 2012. 
  54. "Mission Archives: STS-43". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/archives/sts-43.html. Retrieved 18 December 2012. 
  55. "Mission Archives: STS-48". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/archives/sts-48.html. Retrieved 18 December 2012. 
  56. "Mission Archives: STS-44". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/archives/sts-44.html. Retrieved 18 December 2012. 
  57. "Mission Archives: STS-42". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/archives/sts-42.html. Retrieved 18 December 2012. 
  58. "Mission Archives: STS-45". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/archives/sts-45.html. Retrieved 18 December 2012. 
  59. "Mission Archives: STS-49". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/archives/sts-49.html. Retrieved 18 December 2012. 
  60. "Mission Archives: STS-50". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/archives/sts-50.html. Retrieved 18 December 2012. 
  61. "Mission Archives: STS-46". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/archives/sts-46.html. Retrieved 18 December 2012. 
  62. "Mission Archives: STS-47". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/archives/sts-47.html. Retrieved 18 December 2012. 
  63. "Mission Archives: STS-52". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/archives/sts-52.html. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  64. "Mission Archives: STS-53". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/archives/sts-53.html. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  65. "Mission Archives: STS-54". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/archives/sts-54.html. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  66. "Mission Archives: STS-56". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/archives/sts-56.html. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  67. "Mission Archives: STS-55". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/archives/sts-55.html. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  68. "Mission Archives: STS-57". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/archives/sts-57.html. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
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  72. "Mission Archives: STS-60". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/archives/sts-60.html. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
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  74. "Mission Archives: STS-59". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/archives/sts-59.html. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  75. "Mission Archives: STS-65". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/archives/sts-65.html. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  76. "Mission Archives: STS-64". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/archives/sts-64.html. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  77. "Mission Archives: STS-68". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/archives/sts-68.html. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  78. "Mission Archives: STS-66". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/archives/sts-66.html. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  79. "Mission Archives: STS-63". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/archives/sts-63.html. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  80. "Mission Archives: STS-67". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/archives/sts-67.html. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  81. "Mission Archives: STS-71". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/archives/sts-71.html. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  82. "Mission Archives: STS-70". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/archives/sts-70.html. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  83. "Mission Archives: STS-69". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/archives/sts-69.html. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  84. "Mission Archives: STS-73". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/archives/sts-73.html. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  85. "Mission Archives: STS-74". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/archives/sts-74.html. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  86. "Mission Archives: STS-72". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/archives/sts-72.html. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  87. "Mission Archives: STS-75". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/archives/sts-75.html. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  88. "Mission Archives: STS-76". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/archives/sts-76.html. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  89. "Mission Archives: STS-77". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/archives/sts-77.html. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  90. "Mission Archives: STS-78". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/archives/sts-78.html. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  91. "Mission Archives: STS-79". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/archives/sts-79.html. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  92. "Mission Archives: STS-80". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/archives/sts-80.html. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  93. "Mission Archives: STS-81". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/archives/sts-81.html. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  94. "Mission Archives: STS-82". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/archives/sts-82.html. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  95. "Mission Archives: STS-83". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/archives/sts-83.html. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  96. "Mission Archives: STS-84". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/archives/sts-84.html. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  97. "Mission Archives: STS-94". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/archives/sts-94.html. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  98. "Mission Archives: STS-85". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/archives/sts-85.html. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  99. "Mission Archives: STS-86". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/archives/sts-86.html. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  100. "Mission Archives: STS-87". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/archives/sts-87.html. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  101. "Mission Archives: STS-89". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/archives/sts-89.html. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  102. "Mission Archives: STS-90". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/archives/sts-90.html. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  103. "Mission Archives: STS-91". National Aeronautics and Space Administration. http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/shuttle/shuttlemissions/archives/sts-91.html. Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
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