Jupiter family

A montage of Jupiter and its four largest moons (distance and sizes not to scale)

Jupiter and the Galilean moons animation

The orbit and motion of the Galilean moons around Jupiter, as captured by JunoCam aboard the Juno spacecraft.

There are 67 known moons of Jupiter.[1] This gives Jupiter the largest number of moons with reasonably stable orbits of any planet in the Solar System.[2] The most massive of the moons are the four Galilean moons, independently discovered in 1610 by Galileo Galilei and Simon Marius and were the first objects found to orbit a body that was neither Earth nor the Sun. From the end of the 19th century, dozens of much smaller Jovian moons have been discovered and have received the names of lovers, conquests, or daughters of the Roman god Jupiter or his Greek equivalent Zeus. The Galilean moons are by far the largest and most massive objects in orbit Jupiter, with the remaining 63 moons and its rings together comprising just 0.003% of the total orbiting mass.

Of Jupiter's moons, eight are regular satellites with prograde and nearly circular orbits that are not greatly inclined with respect to Jupiter's equatorial plane. The Galilean satellites are nearly spherical in shape due to their planetary mass, and so would be considered planets if they were in direct orbit around the Sun. The other four regular satellites are much smaller and closer to Jupiter; these serve as sources of the dust that makes up Jupiter's rings. The remainder of Jupiter's moons are irregular satellites whose prograde and retrograde orbits are much farther from Jupiter and have high inclinations and eccentricities. These moons were probably captured by Jupiter from solar orbits. Sixteen irregular satellites have been discovered since 2003 and have not yet been named.


The physical and orbital characteristics of the moons vary widely. The four Galileans are all over 3,100 kilometres (Template:Convert/round mi) in diameter; the largest Galilean, Ganymede, is the ninth largest object in the Solar System, after the Sun and seven of the planets, Ganymede being larger than Mercury. All other Jovian moons are less than 250 kilometres (Template:Convert/round mi) in diameter, with most barely exceeding 5 kilometres (Template:Convert/round mi). Their orbital shapes range from nearly perfectly circular to highly eccentric and inclined, and many revolve in the direction opposite to Jupiter's spin (retrograde motion). Orbital periods range from seven hours (taking less time than Jupiter does to spin around its axis), to some three thousand times more (almost three Earth years).

Origin and evolutionEdit

Jupiter's regular satellites are believed to have formed from a circumplanetary disk, a ring of accreting gas and solid debris analogous to a protoplanetary disk.[3][4] They may be the remnants of a score of Galilean-mass satellites that formed early in Jupiter's history.[3][5]
Masses of Jovian moons

The relative masses of the Jovian moons. Those smaller than Europa are not visible at this scale, and combined would only be visible at 100× magnification.

Simulations suggest that, while the disk had a relatively high mass at any given moment, over time a substantial fraction (several tenths of a percent) of the mass of Jupiter captured from the Solar nebula was passed through it. However, only 2% the proto-disk mass of Jupiter is required to explain the existing satellites.[3] Thus there may have been several generations of Galilean-mass satellites in Jupiter's early history. Each generation of moons might have spiraled into Jupiter, due to drag from the disk, with new moons then forming from the new debris captured from the Solar nebula.[3] By the time the present (possibly fifth) generation formed, the disk had thinned to the point that it no longer greatly interfered with the moons' orbits.[5] The current Galilean moons were still affected, falling into and being partially protected by an orbital resonance with each other, which still exists for Io, Europa, and Ganymede. Ganymede's larger mass means that it would have migrated inward at a faster rate than Europa or Io.[3]

The outer, irregular moons are thought to have originated from captured asteroids, whereas the protolunar disk was still massive enough to absorb much of their momentum and thus capture them into orbit. Many broke up due to the mechanical stresses of capture, or afterward by collisions with other small bodies, producing the moons we see today.[6]



Jupiter and the Galilean moons through a 10" (25 cm) Meade LX200 telescope

The Galilean satellites (the four largest moons of Jupiter)

The Galilean moons. From left to right, in order of increasing distance from Jupiter: Io, Europa, Ganymede, Callisto


The Galilean moons and their orbits around Jupiter

The first claimed observation of one of Jupiter's moons is that of Chinese astronomer Gan De around 364 BC.[7] However, the first certain observations of Jupiter's satellites were those of Galileo Galilei in 1609.[8] By January 1610, he had sighted the four massive Galilean moons with his 30× magnification telescope, and he published his results in March 1610.[9] Simon Marius had independently discovered them one day after Galileo, though he did not publish his book on the subject until 1614, and the names Marius assigned are used today: Ganymede, Callisto, Io, and Europa.[10] No additional satellites were discovered until E. E. Barnard observed Amalthea in 1892.[11] With the aid of telescopic photography, further discoveries followed quickly over the course of the twentieth century. Himalia was discovered in 1904,[12] Elara in 1905,[13] Pasiphaë in 1908,[14] Sinope in 1914,[15] Lysithea and Carme in 1938,[16] Ananke in 1951,[17] and Leda in 1974.[18] By the time that Voyager space probes reached Jupiter around 1979, 13 moons had been discovered, not including Themisto which had been observed in 1975,[19] but was lost until 2000 due to insufficient initial observation data. The Voyager spacecraft discovered an additional three inner moons in 1979: Metis, Adrastea, and Thebe.[20]

No additional moons were discovered for two decades but, between October 1999 and February 2003, researchers found and later named another 34 moons using sensitive ground-based detectors.[21] These are tiny moons, in long, eccentric, generally retrograde orbits, and averaging 3 km (Template:Convert/round mi) in diameter, with the largest being just 9 km (Template:Convert/round mi) across. All of these moons are thought to have been captured asteroidal or perhaps comet bodies, possibly fragmented into several pieces;[22] but very little is known about them. Since 2003, 16 additional moons have been discovered but not yet named,[23] bringing the total number of known moons of Jupiter to 67.[1] As of 2013, this is the most of any planet in the Solar System; but additional undiscovered, tiny moons may exist.


Main article: Naming of moons

The Galilean moons of Jupiter (Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto) were named by Simon Marius soon after their discovery in 1610.[24] However, these names fell out of favor until the 20th century. The astronomical literature instead simply referred to "Jupiter I", "Jupiter II", etc., or "the first satellite of Jupiter", "Jupiter's second satellite", and so on.[24] The names Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto became popular in the 20th century, whereas the rest of the moons remained unnamed and were usually numbered in Roman numerals V (5) to XII (12).[25] Jupiter V was discovered in 1892 and given the name Amalthea by a popular though unofficial convention, a name first used by French astronomer Camille Flammarion.[21]

The other moons were simply labeled by their Roman numeral (e.g. Jupiter IX) in the majority of astronomical literature until the 1970s.[26] In 1975, the International Astronomical Union's (IAU) Task Group for Outer Solar System Nomenclature granted names to satellites V–XIII,[27] and provided for a formal naming process for future satellites still to be discovered.[27] The practice was to name newly discovered moons of Jupiter after lovers and favorites of the god Jupiter (Zeus) and, since 2004, also after their descendants.[28] All of Jupiter's satellites from XXXIV (Euporie) are named after daughters of Jupiter or Zeus.[28]

Some asteroids share the same names as moons of Jupiter: 9 Metis, 38 Leda, 52 Europa, 85 Io, 113 Amalthea, 239 Adrastea. Two more asteroids previously shared the names of Jovian moons until spelling differences were made permanent by the IAU: Ganymede and asteroid 1036 Ganymed; and Callisto and asteroid 204 Kallisto.


TheIrregulars JUPITER

The orbits of Jupiter's irregular satellites, and how they cluster into groups: by semi-major axis (the horizontal axis in Gm); by orbital inclination (the vertical axis); and orbital eccentricity (the yellow lines). The relative sizes are indicated by the circles.

Regular satellitesEdit

These have prograde and nearly circular orbits of low inclination and are split into two groups:

  • Inner satellites or Amalthea group: Metis, Adrastea, Amalthea, and Thebe. These orbit very close to Jupiter; the innermost two orbit in less than a Jovian day. The latter two are respectively the fifth and seventh largest moons in the Jovian system. Observations suggest that at least the largest member, Amalthea, did not form on its present orbit, but farther from the planet, or that it is a captured Solar System body.[29] These moons, along with a number of as-yet-unseen inner moonlets, replenish and maintain Jupiter's faint ring system. Metis and Adrastea help to maintain Jupiter's main ring, whereas Amalthea and Thebe each maintain their own faint outer rings.[30][31]
  • Main group or Galilean moons: Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto. They are some of the largest objects in the Solar System outside the Sun and the eight planets in terms of mass and are larger than any known dwarf planet. Ganymede exceeds even the planet Mercury in diameter. They are respectively the fourth-, sixth-, first-, and third-largest natural satellites in the Solar System, containing approximately 99.997% of the total mass in orbit around Jupiter, while Jupiter is almost 5,000 times more massive than the Galilean moons.[note 1] The inner moons are in a 1:2:4 orbital resonance. Models suggest that they formed by slow accretion in the low-density Jovian subnebula—a disc of the gas and dust that existed around Jupiter after its formation—which lasted up to 10 million years in the case of Callisto.[32] Several are suspected of having subsurface oceans.

Irregular satellitesEdit

Jupiter moons anim

Jupiter's outer moons and their highly inclined orbits

Main article: Irregular satellite

The irregular satellites are substantially smaller objects with more distant and eccentric orbits. They form families with shared similarities in orbit (semi-major axis, inclination, eccentricity) and composition; it is believed that these are at least partially collisional families that were created when larger (but still small) parent bodies were shattered by impacts from asteroids captured by Jupiter's gravitational field. These families bear the names of their largest members. The identification of satellite families is tentative, but the following are typically listed:[23][33][34]

  • Themisto[33] is the innermost irregular moon and not part of a known family.[23]
  • Carpo is the outermost prograde moon and not part of a known family.[23]
Jupiter sats i vs e

Retrograde satellites: inclinations (°) vs. eccentricities, with Carme's (orange) and Ananke's (yellow) groups identified

  • S/2003 J 12 and S/2011 J 1 are the innermost of the retrograde moons, and are not part of any known family.
  • The Carme group is spread over only 1.2 Gm in semi-major axis, 1.6° in inclination (165.7 ± 0.8°), and eccentricities between 0.23 and 0.27. It is very homogeneous in color (light red) and is believed to have originated from a D-type asteroid progenitor, possibly a Jupiter Trojan.[22]
  • The Ananke group has a relatively wider spread than the previous groups, over 2.4 Gm in semi-major axis, 8.1° in inclination (between 145.7° and 154.8°), and eccentricities between 0.02 and 0.28. Most of the members appear gray, and are believed to have formed from the breakup of a captured asteroid.[22]
  • The Pasiphae group is quite dispersed, with a spread over 1.3 Gm, inclinations between 144.5° and 158.3°, and eccentricities between 0.25 and 0.43.[22] The colors also vary significantly, from red to grey, which might be the result of multiple collisions. Sinope, sometimes included in the Pasiphae group,[22] is red and, given the difference in inclination, it could have been captured independently;[33] Pasiphae and Sinope are also trapped in secular resonances with Jupiter.[35]
  • S/2003 J 2 is the outermost moon of Jupiter, and is not part of a known family.


The moons of Jupiter are listed below by orbital period. Moons massive enough for their surfaces to have collapsed into a spheroid are highlighted in bold. These are the four Galilean moons, which are comparable in size to the Moon. The four inner moons are much smaller, the fourth most massive being more than 7000 times more massive than the fifth-most. The irregular captured moons are shaded light gray when prograde and dark gray when retrograde.

[note 2]
[note 3]
Image Diameter
(km)[note 4]
(Template:E kg)

Orbital period
(d)[36][note 5]
Discoverer[21] Group
[note 6]
1 Template:Sort Metis Template:IPAc-en
Template:Sort Template:Sort Template:Sort Template:Sort Template:Sort[37] Template:Val 1979 Synnott
(Voyager 1)
2Template:Sort Adrastea Template:IPAc-en
Template:Sort Template:Sort Template:Sort Template:Sort Template:Sort[37] 0.0015 1979 Jewitt
(Voyager 2)
3Template:Sort Amalthea Template:IPAc-enTemplate:Refn
Amalthea Voyager-1
Template:Sort Template:Sort Template:Sort Template:Sort Template:Sort[37] 0.0032 1892 Barnard Inner
4Template:Sort Thebe Template:IPAc-en
Template:Sort Template:Sort Template:Sort Template:Sort Template:Sort[37] 0.0175 1979 Synnott
(Voyager 1)
5Template:Sort Io Template:IPAc-en
Io highest resolution true color
Template:Sort Template:Sort Template:Sort Template:Sort Template:Sort[37] 0.0041 1610 Galilei Galilean
6Template:Sort Europa Template:IPAc-enTemplate:Refn
Template:Sort Template:Sort Template:Sort Template:Sort Template:Sort[37] 0.0094 1610 Galilei Galilean
7Template:Sort Ganymede Template:IPAc-enTemplate:RefnTemplate:Refn
Ganymede g1 true-edit1
Template:Sort Template:Sort Template:Sort Template:Sort Template:Sort[37] 0.0011 1610 Galilei Galilean
8Template:Sort Callisto Template:IPAc-en
Template:Sort Template:Sort Template:Sort Template:Sort Template:Sort[37] 0.0074 1610 Galilei Galilean
9Template:Sort Themisto Template:IPAc-en S 2000 J 1 Template:Sort Template:Sort Template:Sort +129.87 Template:Sort 0.2115 1975/2000 Kowal & Roemer/
Sheppard et al.
10Template:Sort Leda Template:IPAc-en Template:Sort Template:Sort Template:Val +240.82 Template:Sort 0.1673 1974 Kowal Himalia
11Template:Sort Himalia Template:IPAc-en
Himalia from New Horizons
Template:Sort Template:Sort Template:Val +250.23 Template:Sort 0.1513 1904 Perrine Himalia
12Template:Sort Lysithea Template:IPAc-en Lysithea2 Template:Sort Template:Sort Template:Val +259.89 Template:Sort 0.1322 1938 Nicholson Himalia
13Template:Sort Elara Template:IPAc-en
Template:Sort Template:Sort Template:Val +257.62 Template:Sort 0.1948 1905 Perrine Himalia
14 Template:Sort Dia Template:IPAc-en Template:Sort Template:Sort Template:Val +287.93 Template:Sort 0.2058 2001 Sheppard et al. Himalia?
15Template:Sort Carpo Template:IPAc-en Template:Sort Template:Sort Template:Val +458.62 Template:Sort 0.2735 2003 Sheppard et al. Carpo
16 Template:Sort S/2003 J 12 Template:Sort Template:Sort Template:Val −482.69 142.680 0.4449 2003 Sheppard et al. ?
17Template:Sort Euporie Template:IPAc-en Template:Sort Template:Sort Template:Val −538.78 144.694 0.0960 2002 Sheppard et al. Ananke
18 Template:Sort S/2003 J 3 Template:Sort Template:Sort Template:Val −561.52 146.363 0.2507 2003 Sheppard et al. Ananke
19 Template:Sort S/2003 J 18 Template:Sort Template:Sort Template:Val −569.73 147.401 0.1569 2003 Gladman et al. Ananke
20 Template:Sort S/2011 J 1 Template:Sort Template:Val −582.22 162.8 0.2963 2011 Sheppard et al. ?
21 [[Jupiter LII|Template:Sort]] S/2010 J 2 Template:Sort Template:Val −588.36 150.4 0.307 2010 Veillet Ananke?
22Template:Sort Thelxinoe Template:IPAc-en Template:Sort Template:Sort Template:Val −597.61 151.292 0.2684 2003 Sheppard et al. Ananke
23Template:Sort Euanthe Template:IPAc-en Template:Sort Template:Sort Template:Val −598.09 143.409 0.2000 2002 Sheppard et al. Ananke
24Template:Sort Helike Template:IPAc-en Template:Sort Template:Sort Template:Val −601.40 154.586 0.1374 2003 Sheppard et al. Ananke
25Template:Sort Orthosie Template:IPAc-en Template:Sort Template:Sort Template:Val −602.62 142.366 0.2433 2002 Sheppard et al. Ananke
26Template:Sort Iocaste Template:IPAc-en Template:Sort Template:Sort Template:Val −609.43 147.248 0.2874 2001 Sheppard et al. Ananke
27 Template:Sort S/2003 J 16 Template:Sort Template:Sort Template:Val −610.36 150.769 0.3184 2003 Gladman et al. Ananke
28Template:Sort Praxidike Template:IPAc-en Template:Sort Template:Sort Template:Val −613.90 144.205 0.1840 2001 Sheppard et al. Ananke
29Template:Sort Harpalyke Template:IPAc-en Template:Sort Template:Sort Template:Val −624.54 147.223 0.2440 2001 Sheppard et al. Ananke
30Template:Sort Mneme Template:IPAc-en Template:Sort Template:Sort Template:Val −627.48 149.732 0.3169 2003 Gladman et al. Ananke
31Template:Sort Hermippe Template:IPAc-en Ερμίππη Template:Sort Template:Sort Template:Val −629.81 151.242 0.2290 2002 Sheppard et al. Ananke?
32Template:Sort Thyone Template:IPAc-en Template:Sort Template:Sort Template:Val −639.80 147.276 0.2525 2002 Sheppard et al. Ananke
33Template:Sort Ananke Template:IPAc-en Ananké Template:Sort Template:Sort Template:Val −640.38 151.564 0.3445 1951 Nicholson Ananke
34 Template:Sort Herse Template:IPAc-en Template:Sort Template:Sort Template:Val −672.75 162.490 0.2379 2003 Gladman et al. Carme
35Template:Sort Aitne Template:IPAc-en Template:Sort Template:Sort Template:Val −679.64 165.562 0.3927 2002 Sheppard et al. Carme
36Template:Sort Kale Template:IPAc-en Template:Sort Template:Sort Template:Val −685.32 165.378 0.2011 2002 Sheppard et al. Carme
37Template:Sort Taygete Template:IPAc-en Template:Sort Template:Sort Template:Val −686.67 164.890 0.3678 2001 Sheppard et al. Carme
38 Template:Sort S/2003 J 19 Template:Sort Template:Sort Template:Val −699.12 164.727 0.1961 2003 Gladman et al. Carme
39Template:Sort Chaldene Template:IPAc-en Template:Sort Template:Sort Template:Val −699.33 167.070 0.2916 2001 Sheppard et al. Carme
40 Template:Sort S/2003 J 15 Template:Sort Template:Sort Template:Val −699.68 141.812 0.0932 2003 Sheppard et al. Ananke?
41 Template:Sort S/2003 J 10 Template:Sort Template:Sort Template:Val −700.13 163.813 0.3438 2003 Sheppard et al. Carme?
42 Template:Sort S/2003 J 23 S2003j23ccircle Template:Sort Template:Sort Template:Val −700.54 148.849 0.3930 2004 Sheppard et al. Pasiphae
43Template:Sort Erinome Template:IPAc-en Template:Sort Template:Sort Template:Val −711.96 163.737 0.2552 2001 Sheppard et al. Carme
44Template:Sort Aoede Template:IPAc-en Template:Sort Template:Sort Template:Val −714.66 160.482 0.6011 2003 Sheppard et al. Pasiphae
45Template:Sort Kallichore Template:IPAc-en Template:Sort Template:Sort Template:Val −717.81 164.605 0.2041 2003 Sheppard et al. Carme?
46Template:Sort Kalyke Template:IPAc-en Template:Sort Template:Sort Template:Val −721.02 165.505 0.2139 2001 Sheppard et al. Carme
47Template:Sort Carme Template:IPAc-en Carmé Template:Sort Template:Sort Template:Val −763.95 165.047 0.2342 1938 Nicholson Carme
48Template:Sort Callirrhoe Template:IPAc-en
Template:Sort Template:Sort Template:Val −727.11 139.849 0.2582 2000 Spahr, Scotti Pasiphae
49Template:Sort Eurydome Template:IPAc-en Template:Sort Template:Sort Template:Val −723.36 149.324 0.3769 2002 Sheppard et al. Pasiphae?
50 Template:Sort S/2011 J 2 Template:Sort Template:Val −725.06 151.8 0.3867 2011 Sheppard et al. Pasiphae?
51Template:Sort Pasithee Template:IPAc-en Template:Sort Template:Sort Template:Val −726.93 165.759 0.3288 2002 Sheppard et al. Carme
52 [[Jupiter LI|Template:Sort]] S/2010 J 1 Template:Sort Template:Val −722.83 163.2 0.320 2010 Jacobson et al. Carme?
53 Template:Sort Kore Template:IPAc-en Template:Sort Template:Sort Template:Val −776.02 137.371 0.1951 2003 Sheppard et al. Pasiphae
54Template:Sort Cyllene Template:IPAc-en Template:Sort Template:Sort Template:Val −731.10 140.148 0.4115 2003 Sheppard et al. Pasiphae
55Template:Sort Eukelade Template:IPAc-en Template:Sort Template:Sort Template:Val −735.20 163.996 0.2828 2003 Sheppard et al. Carme
56 Template:Sort S/2003 J 4 Template:Sort Template:Sort Template:Val −739.29 147.175 0.3003 2003 Sheppard et al. Pasiphae
57Template:Sort Pasiphae Template:IPAc-en Pasiphaé Template:Sort Template:Sort Template:Val −739.80 141.803 0.3743 1908 Melotte Pasiphae
58Template:Sort Hegemone Template:IPAc-en Template:Sort Template:Sort Template:Val −745.50 152.506 0.4077 2003 Sheppard et al. Pasiphae
59Template:Sort Arche Template:IPAc-en Bigs2002j1barrow Template:Sort Template:Sort Template:Val −746.19 164.587 0.1492 2002 Sheppard et al. Carme
60Template:Sort Isonoe Template:IPAc-en Template:Sort Template:Sort Template:Val −750.13 165.127 0.1775 2001 Sheppard et al. Carme
61 Template:Sort S/2003 J 9 Template:Sort Template:Sort Template:Val −752.84 164.980 0.2761 2003 Sheppard et al. Carme
62 Template:Sort S/2003 J 5 Template:Sort Template:Sort Template:Val −758.34 165.549 0.3070 2003 Sheppard et al. Carme
63Template:Sort Sinope Template:IPAc-en Sinopé Template:Sort Template:Sort Template:Val −739.33 153.778 0.2750 1914 Nicholson Pasiphae
64Template:Sort Sponde Template:IPAc-en Template:Sort Template:Sort Template:Val −771.60 154.372 0.4431 2002 Sheppard et al. Pasiphae
65Template:SortAutonoe Template:IPAc-en Template:Sort Template:Sort Template:Val −772.17 151.058 0.3690 2002 Sheppard et al. Pasiphae
66Template:Sort Megaclite Template:IPAc-en Template:Sort Template:Sort Template:Val −792.44 150.398 0.3077 2001 Sheppard et al. Pasiphae
67 Template:Sort S/2003 J 2 Template:Sort Template:Sort Template:Val Template:Sort 153.521 0.1882 2003 Sheppard et al. ?


Main article: Exploration of Jupiter

The first spacecraft to visit Jupiter were Pioneer 10 in 1973, and Pioneer 11 a year later, taking low-resolution images of the four Galilean moons.[38] The Voyager 1 and Voyager 2 probes visited Jupiter in 1979, discovering the volcanic activity on Io and the presence of water ice on the surface of Europa. The Cassini probe to Saturn flew by Jupiter in 2000 and collected data on interactions of the Galilean moons with Jupiter's extended atmosphere. The New Horizons spacecraft flew by Jupiter in 2007 and made improved measurements of its satellites' orbital parameters.

The Galileo spacecraft was the first to enter orbit around Jupiter, arriving in 1995 and studying it until 2003. During this period, Galileo gathered a large amount of information about the Jovian system, making close approaches to all of the Galilean moons and finding evidence for thin atmospheres on three of them, as well as the possibility of liquid water beneath the surfaces of Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto. It also discovered a magnetic field around Ganymede.

In 2016, the Juno spacecraft imaged the Galilean moons from above their orbital plane as it approached Jupiter orbit insertion, creating a time-lapse movie of their motion.[39]

See alsoEdit


  1. Jupiter Mass of 1.8986Template:E-sp kg / Mass of Galilean moons 3.93Template:E-sp kg = 4,828
  2. Order refers to the position among other moons with respect to their average distance from Jupiter.
  3. Label refers to the Roman numeral attributed to each moon in order of their naming.
  4. Diameters with multiple entries such as "60 × 40 × 34" reflect that the body is not a perfect spheroid and that each of its dimensions have been measured well enough.
  5. Periods with negative values are retrograde.
  6. "?" refers to group assignments that are not considered sure yet.


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  23. 23.0 23.1 23.2 23.3 23.4 Sheppard, Scott S.. "Jupiter's Known Satellites". Departament of Terrestrial Magnetism at Carniege Institution for science. Retrieved 2008-08-28. 
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  38. File:Pioneer-10 jupiter moons.jpg
  39. Juno Approach Movie of Jupiter and the Galilean Moons, NASA, July 2016

External linksEdit

Template:Moons of Jupiter Template:Jupiter Template:Solar System moons (compact)

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