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 Apollo 11 mission emblem (front). Crew names, dates (launch, lunar landing, and return), and serial number 416 (back)

Apollo 11 space-flown silver Robbins Medallion from the first spaceflight to land on the moon. Presented to Wally Schirra by Neil Armstrong.

NASA space-flown Gemini and Apollo medallions were mission-specific commemorative medallions—often astronaut-designed—which were approved by NASA and carried aboard the mission spacecraft into orbit. Beginning with the first manned Gemini mission in 1965, commemorative medallions were prepared for the astronauts at their request. These were produced by a company only known as Fliteline and were struck either in a pewter-colored base metal, sometimes painted a gold color, or sterling silver, and were flown on all 10 manned Gemini missions. A Fliteline medallion was designed and produced for Apollo 1, but was never officially flown after a disastrous cabin fire during a launch rehearsal killed the flight crew.

The Robbins Company of Attleboro, Massachusetts, was contracted in 1968 to produce commemorative medallions beginning with Apollo 7, the first manned Apollo flight since the Apollo 1 disaster. These were purchased by astronauts and support crew personnel at NASA Astronaut Flight Office, and a total of over 3,000 sterling silver Robbins medallions were flown into space across the 12 manned flights of the Apollo program. Some of these were later sold in public auction for up to $60,000. The basic elements of the medallion design are consistent throughout the 12 medallions in the series, with the main design element and the mission name on the obverse, mission dates on the reverse, primary flight crew names on either the obverse or reverse, and a serial number either on the lower reverse or on the rim. A very small number of Apollo Robbins medallions were also struck in 14k gold, generally ordered by the mission crew as a personal memento. Sterling silver Robbins medallions have continued to be struck for every manned NASA spaceflight, including Skylab and Space Shuttle missions.Template:Sfn[nb 1]

Space-flown numismatic itemsEdit

Template:Css Image Crop Template:Css Image Crop Numismatic souvenirs have accompanied astronauts on nearly every early spaceflight.Template:Sfn Mercury astronauts carried small light-weight mementos on their missions, often in the form of US coins or banknotes. On the first sub-orbital flight (Mercury-Redstone 3), Alan Shepard carried with him four one-dollar silver certificates which were subsequently signed by him, other Mercury astronauts, and support staff becoming short snorters. John Glenn, piloting the first manned U.S. orbital spaceflight Mercury-Atlas 6 also carried several one-dollar silver certificates.

Space-flown numismatic items are also known for early Gemini missions. On the first manned Gemini flight (Gemini 3), Grissom and Young brought 50 two-dollar bills.Template:Sfn Young also made history for smuggling "contraband" on board the flight, in the form of a corned-beef sandwich.[1][2][3][4]

Gemini mission space-flown Fliteline medallionsEdit

Beginning with the first manned Gemini mission in March 1965, commemorative medallions were prepared for the astronauts at their request. It is unclear who prepared these early medallions, only that each individual box containing a medallion bore the word "Fliteline".Template:Sfn It is unknown how many gold and silver colored medallions were prepared for each mission, and how many were space-flown versus unflown. Fliteline medallions were prepared for each of the manned Gemini flights, as well as the ill-fated Apollo 1 mission.

Gemini mission space-flown Fliteline medallions[nb 2]
Mission DateTemplate:Refn Medallion Size ProvenanceTemplate:Refn
G03
Gemini 3
1965-03-23<center>23 Mar 1965  Gemini 3 mission emblem and crew names (front). Flight date (back) <center>26 mm (Template:Convert/round in) Gordon Cooper[5]
G04<center>Gemini 4 1965-06-03<center>3 Jun 1965
7 Jun 1965
 Gemini 4 mission emblem and crew names (front). Flight dates (back) <center>25 mm (Template:Convert/round in) Ed White, II[6]
G05<center>Gemini 5 1965-08-21<center>21 Aug 1965
29 Aug 1965
 Gemini 5 mission emblem and crew names (front). Flight dates (back) <center>25 mm (Template:Convert/round in) Not reported[7]
G06<center>Gemini 6A 1965-12-15<center>15 Dec 1965
16 Dec 1965
 Gemini 6 mission emblem and crew names (front). Flight dates (back) <center>25 mm (Template:Convert/round in) Wally Schirra[8]
G07<center>Gemini 7 1965-12-04<center>4 Dec 1965
18 Dec 1965
 Gemini 7 mission emblem and crew names (front). Flight dates (back) <center>25 mm (Template:Convert/round in) Frank Borman to
Joe Garino[9][10]
G08<center>Gemini 8 1966-03-16<center>16 Mar 1966
17 Mar 1966
 Gemini 8 mission emblem and crew names (front). Flight date (back) <center>25 mm (Template:Convert/round in) David Scott to
Joe Garino[10][11]
G09<center>Gemini 9A 1966-06-03<center>3 Jun 1966
6 Jun 1966
 Gemini 9 mission emblem and crew names (front). Flight dates (back) <center>Expression error: Unrecognised word "x".Expression error: Unrecognised word "x".Expression error: Unrecognised word "x". (Template:Convert/round in) Gene Cernan[12]
G10<center>Gemini 10 1966-07-18<center>18 Jul 1966
21 Jul 1966
 Gemini 10 mission emblem and crew names (front). Flight dates (back) <center>25 mm (Template:Convert/round in) John Young[13]
G11<center>Gemini 11 1966-09-12<center>12 Sep 1966
15 Sep 1966
 Gemini 11 mission emblem and crew names (front). Flight dates (back) <center>Expression error: Unrecognised word "x".Expression error: Unrecognised word "x".Expression error: Unrecognised word "x". (Template:Convert/round in) Jack Lousma[14]
G12<center>Gemini 12 1966-11-11<center>11 Nov 1966
15 Nov 1966
 Gemini 12 mission emblem and crew names (front). Flight dates (back) <center>25 mm (Template:Convert/round in) Jim Lovell to
Joe Garino[10][15]

Apollo mission space-flown Robbins medallionsEdit

The Robbins Company was founded in 1892 by jeweler Charles M. Robbins, in Attleboro, Massachusetts.[16] They began designing and producing commemorative badges for Ohio in 1913,Template:Sfn and South Dakota in 1917.Template:Sfn In 1935, the first 1,000 badges of a new design for the Federal Bureau of Investigation were produced by Robbins.Template:Sfn The Robbins Company also struck the Olympic medals for the 1932 Winter Games in Lake Placid, New York.[16]

Robbins medallionsEdit

The Apollo 1 cabin fire in January 1967 put manned spaceflight on hold. The crew of Apollo 7, designated to be the return to manned spaceflight, began working with the Robbins Company later in 1967 to produce commemorative mission medallions.Template:SfnTemplate:Sfn Commissioned by the NASA Astronaut Flight Office (AFO), the medallions were financed entirely through the orders placed by astronauts and support crew personnel.Template:SfnTemplate:Sfn Only those directly affiliated with the AFO were eligible as purchasers,Template:Sfn and they were bound by their employment contract not to commercialize the medallions,Template:Sfn as NASA was concerned about any appearance that the astronauts might profit from the flown medallions.Template:Sfn

One (or more) of the astronauts from the flight crew worked directly with the Robbins Company to design the mission medallion.Template:Sfn The basic elements of the medallion design are consistent throughout the Project Apollo series. The main design element along with the mission name is located on the obverse. The names of the flight crew can be found on either the obverse or reverse. The mission dates are located on the reverse. Beginning with Apollo 11, special fields were designed for the reverse of the medallion that allowed for engraved dates of launch, lunar landing, and return. Also on the reverse (or sometimes the edge) is the medallion serial number. The size of most Robbins Apollo medallions falls roughly between a current US quarter (24.3 mm (Template:Convert/round in)) and a Kennedy half dollar (30.6 mm (Template:Convert/round in)).

The medallions were struck in sterling silver two to three months prior to the scheduled mission, though it is unclear whether serial numbers were added pre or post-flight.Template:Sfn The medallions were stored in the Command Service Module during flight and on missions involving a lunar landing, a small number were brought to the lunar surface aboard the Lunar Module.Template:Sfn The flown medallions were returned to the Robbins Company after the flight to have the dates engraved and for a final polishing.Template:Sfn Except where noted, all medallions struck for Apollo 7–14 were flown,Template:Sfn and serial numbers for Apollo 14–17 medallions appear on the rim.Template:Sfn

Apollo Robbins medallions were also struck, in very small numbers, in 14k gold.Template:Sfn[nb 3] These medallions were generally ordered by the mission crew as a personal memento of their flight and were often taken to the lunar surface in the Landing Module.Template:Sfn For the duration of the Apollo program, Robbins medallions (3–7 gold and 80–450 silver per mission) were flown into space.Template:SfnTemplate:SfnTemplate:Sfn

Apollo mission space-flown Robbins medallions[nb 4]
Mission DateTemplate:Refn Medallion № flown
(struck)
[nb 5]
Size Design ProvenanceTemplate:Refn
A01<center>Apollo 1 <center>[nb 6]  Apollo 1 mission emblem (front). Apollo 1 crew names, Apollo 9 flight dates (back) 008<center>8
(unk)
<center>31 mm (Template:Convert/round in) Unknown [nb 7]
A07<center>Apollo 7 1968-10-11<center>11 Oct 1968
22 Oct 1968
 Apollo 7 mission emblem and crew names (front). Flight date and serial number 186 (back) 255<center>255
[nb 8]
<center>32 mm (Template:Convert/round in) Walter CunninghamTemplate:Sfn Rusty Schweickart[18]
A08<center>Apollo 8 1968-12-21<center>21 Dec 1968
27 Dec 1968
 Apollo 8 mission emblem and crew names (front). Flight dates and serial number 264 (back) 300<center>300 <center>Expression error: Unrecognised word "x".Expression error: Unrecognised word "x".Expression error: Unrecognised word "x". (Template:Convert/round in) Jim LovellTemplate:Sfn Rusty Schweickart[19]
A09<center>Apollo 9 1969-03-03<center>3 Mar 1969
13 Mar 1969
 Apollo 9 mission emblem (front). Crew names, flight dates, and serial number 260 (back) 350<center>350 <center>25 mm (Template:Convert/round in) McDivitt, Scott, SchweickartTemplate:Sfn Jim McDivitt (Crew Commander), presented to Wally Schirra[20]
A10<center>Apollo 10 1969-05-18<center>18 May 1969
26 May 1969
 Apollo 10 mission emblem and crew names (front). Flight dates and serial number 70 (back) 300<center>300 <center>Expression error: Unrecognised word "x".Expression error: Unrecognised word "x".Expression error: Unrecognised word "x". (Template:Convert/round in) Stafford, Young, CernanTemplate:Sfn Rusty Schweickart[21]
A11<center>Apollo 11 1969-07-16<center>16 Jul 1969
20 Jul 1969
24 Jul 1969
 Apollo 11 mission emblem (front). Crew names, dates (launch, lunar landing, and return), and serial number 416 (back) 440<center>440
(450)
[nb 9]
<center>28 mm (Template:Convert/round in) Michael CollinsTemplate:Sfn Neil Armstrong (Crew Commander), presented to Wally Schirra[22]
A12<center>Apollo 12 1969-11-14<center>14 Nov 1969
19 Nov 1969
24 Nov 1969
 Apollo 12 mission emblem and crew names (front). Dates (launch, lunar landing, and return), and serial number 1 (back) 262<center>262
[nb 10]
<center>32 mm (Template:Convert/round in) UnknownTemplate:Sfn Pete Conrad (Crew Commander), presented to Jim Rathmann[23]
A13<center>Apollo 13 1970-04-11<center>11 Apr 1970
abort
17 Apr 1970
 Apollo 13 mission emblem and crew names (front). Flight dates and serial number 354 (back) 400<center>400
[nb 11]
<center>32 mm (Template:Convert/round in) Apollo 13 crew with Lumen Martin WinterTemplate:Sfn Rusty Schweickart[24]
A14<center>Apollo 14 1971-01-31<center>31 Jan 1971
5 Feb 1971
9 Feb 1971
 Apollo 14 mission emblem and crew names (front). Dates (launch, lunar landing, and return) (back) 303<center>303 <center>Expression error: Unrecognised word "x".Expression error: Unrecognised word "x".Expression error: Unrecognised word "x". (Template:Convert/round in) Apollo 14 crew with Jean BeaulieuTemplate:Sfn[nb 12] Rusty Schweickart[25]
A15<center>Apollo 15 1971-07-26<center>26 Jul 1971
30 Jul 1971
7 Aug 1971
 Apollo 15 mission emblem and crew names (front). Dates (launch, lunar landing, and return) and landing site (back) 127<center>127
(304)
[nb 13][nb 14]
<center>35 mm (Template:Convert/round in) Based on a design by Emilio PucciTemplate:Sfn Rusty Schweickart[26]
A16<center>Apollo 16 1972-04-16<center>16 Apr 1972
20 Apr 1972
27 Apr 1972
 Apollo 16 mission emblem and crew names (front). Dates (launch, lunar landing, and return) (back) 098<center>98
(300)
<center>35 mm (Template:Convert/round in) Apollo 16 crew with Barbara MatelskiTemplate:Sfn[nb 15] John Young (Crew Commander)[27]
A17<center>Apollo 17 1972-12-07<center>7 Dec 1972
11 Dec 1972
19 Dec 1972
 Apollo 17 mission emblem and crew names (front). Dates (launch, lunar landing, and return) and landing site (back) 080<center>80
(300)
<center>35 mm (Template:Convert/round in) Apollo 17 crewTemplate:Sfn Unknown
AS<center>Apollo
Soyuz
1975-07-15<center>15 Jul 1975
24 Jul 1975
 Apollo-Soyuz Test Project mission emblem and crew names in English and Russian (front). Dates (launch and entry) (back) 093<center>93
(192)
<center>35 mm (Template:Convert/round in) Unknown Rusty Schweickart[28]

Robbins Apollo medallions at auctionEdit

Despite the NASA prohibition on commercializing the medallions, since 1995 there have been over 500 internet or live auction appearances of Apollo mission Robbins medallions.[29] Two auction companies account for a majority of the sales: Heritage Auctions (over 200 since 2007)[30] and RR Auction (over 100 since 2011).[31] Between both auction companies, the top 10 prices realized range from US$30,000 to nearly $62,000, all for sterling silver medallions from either Apollo 11 or Apollo 17.[32][33]

ReferencesEdit

FootnotesEdit

  1. "50 Years Ago This Week a Sandwich Was Smuggled into Space". Washingtonpost.com. http://www.washingtonpost.com/news/speaking-of-science/wp/2015/03/24/50-years-ago-this-week-a-sandwich-was-smuggled-into-space/. Retrieved 5 July 2015. 
  2. "The Case of the Contraband Corned Beef Sandwich". Discovery.com. http://news.discovery.com/space/the-case-of-the-contraband-corned-beef-sandwich.htm. Retrieved 5 July 2015. 
  3. "Astronaut John Young Brought a Corned Beef Sandwich into Space". Businessinsider.com. http://www.businessinsider.com/astronaut-john-young-brought-a-corn-beef-sandwich-into-space-2012-8. Retrieved 5 July 2015. 
  4. Template:Cite report
  5. "Gemini 3 Flown Silver Fliteline Medallion Originally from the Collection of Gordon Cooper". Heritage Auctions (HA.com). http://historical.ha.com/itm/explorers/gemini-3-flown-silver-fliteline-medallion-originally-from-the-collection-of-gordon-cooper/a/6115-40057.s. Retrieved 14 April 2015. 
  6. "Gemini 4 Flown Silver Fliteline Medallion Originally from the Personal Collection of Mission Pilot Ed White II". Heritage Auctions (HA.com). http://historical.ha.com/itm/explorers/gemini-4-flown-silver-fliteline-medallion-originally-from-the-personal-collection-of-mission-pilot-ed-white-ii-with-signed-c/a/6095-40054.s. Retrieved 14 April 2015. 
  7. "Gemini 5 Flown Silver Fliteline Medallion". Heritage Auctions (HA.com). http://historical.ha.com/itm/explorers/gemini-5-flown-silver-fliteline-medallion/a/6103-40063.s. Retrieved 14 April 2015. 
  8. "Gemini 6A Flown Silver-Colored Fliteline Medallion, Originally from Wally Schirra's Personal Collection". Heritage Auctions (HA.com). http://historical.ha.com/itm/explorers/gemini-6a-flown-silver-colored-fliteline-medallion-originally-from-wally-schirra-s-personal-collection/a/6082-40045.s. Retrieved 14 April 2015. 
  9. "Gemini 7 Flown Fliteline Gold-Plated Sterling Silver Medallion". Heritage Auctions (HA.com). http://historical.ha.com/itm/autographs/gemini-7-flown-fliteline-gold-plated-sterling-silver-medallion-presented-to-joe-garino-by-frank-borman-from-the-collecti/a/669-25289.s. Retrieved 14 April 2015. 
  10. 10.0 10.1 10.2 "Joe Garino Collection of Space Memorabilia to be Auctioned by Heritage!". http://www.ha.com/heritage-auctions-press-releases-and-news/joe-garino-collection-of-space-memorabilia-to-be-auctioned-by-heritage-.s?releaseId=1394. Retrieved 15 December 2015. 
  11. "Gemini 8 Flown Fliteline Sterling Silver Medallion". Heritage Auctions (HA.com). http://historical.ha.com/itm/autographs/gemini-8-flown-fliteline-sterling-silver-medallion-presented-to-joe-garino-by-dave-scott-from-the-collection-of-renowned/a/669-25290.s. Retrieved 14 April 2015. 
  12. "Gemini 9A Flown Silver Fliteline Medallion Originally from the Collection of Mission Pilot Gene Cernan". Heritage Auctions (HA.com). http://historical.ha.com/itm/explorers/gemini-9a-flown-silver-fliteline-medallion-originally-from-the-collection-of-mission-pilot-gene-cernan/a/6095-40062.s. Retrieved 14 April 2015. 
  13. "Gemini 10 Flown Fliteline Gold-Colored Medallion Directly from the Personal Collection of Mission Commander John Young". Heritage Auctions (HA.com). http://historical.ha.com/itm/transportation/gemini-10-flown-fliteline-gold-colored-medallion-directly-from-the-personal-collection-of-mission-commander-john-young-with/a/6052-41042.s. Retrieved 14 April 2015. 
  14. "Gemini 11 Flown Sterling Silver Fliteline Medallion Directly from the Personal Collection of Astronaut Jack Lousma". Heritage Auctions (HA.com). http://historical.ha.com/itm/transportation/gemini-11-flown-sterling-silver-fliteline-medallion-directly-from-the-personal-collection-of-astronaut-jack-lousma-with-sign/a/6052-41050.s. Retrieved 14 April 2015. 
  15. "Gemini 12 Flown Fliteline Gold-Plated Sterling Silver Medallion". Heritage Auctions (HA.com). http://historical.ha.com/itm/autographs/gemini-12-flown-fliteline-gold-plated-sterling-silver-medallion-presented-to-joe-garino-by-jim-lovell-from-the-collectio/a/669-25294.s. Retrieved 14 April 2015. 
  16. 16.0 16.1 "TharpeRobbins Company History". TharpeRobbins Company. https://archive.org/details/Httpsweb.archive.orgweb20141219014213httpwww.tharperobbins.comabouthistory. 
  17. "Apollo 1 Silver-Colored Fliteline Medallion Flown on Apollo 9 by Mission Commander Jim McDivitt, Originally from the Ed White II Family Collection". Heritage Auctions (HA.com). http://historical.ha.com/itm/explorers/apollo-1-silver-colored-fliteline-medallion-flown-on-apollo-9-by-mission-commander-jim-mcdivitt-originally-from-the-ed-white/a/6095-40071.s. Retrieved 14 April 2015. 
  18. "Apollo 7 Flown Robbins Medallion Directly from the Personal Collection of Astronaut Rusty Schweickart, Serial Number 186". Heritage Auctions (HA.com). http://historical.ha.com/itm/transportation/apollo-7-flown-robbins-medallion-directly-from-the-personal-collection-of-astronaut-rusty-schweickart-serial-number-186-wit/a/6075-40034.s. Retrieved 14 April 2015. 
  19. "Apollo 8 Flown Silver Robbins Medallion Directly from the Personal Collection of Astronaut Rusty Schweickart, Serial Number 264". Heritage Auctions (HA.com). http://historical.ha.com/itm/transportation/apollo-8-flown-silver-robbins-medallion-directly-from-the-personal-collection-of-astronaut-rusty-schweickart-serial-number-2/a/6075-40038.s. Retrieved 14 April 2015. 
  20. "Apollo 9 Flown Silver Robbins Medallion Originally from the Personal Collection of Mercury Seven Astronaut Wally Schirra, Serial Number 260". Heritage Auctions (HA.com). http://historical.ha.com/itm/explorers/apollo-9-flown-silver-robbins-medallion-originally-from-the-personal-collection-of-mercury-seven-astronaut-wally-schirra-ser/a/6095-40075.s. Retrieved 14 April 2015. 
  21. "Apollo 10 Flown Silver Robbins Medallion Directly from the Personal Collection of Astronaut Rusty Schweickart, Serial Number 70". Heritage Auctions (HA.com). http://historical.ha.com/itm/transportation/apollo-10-flown-silver-robbins-medallion-directly-from-the-personal-collection-of-astronaut-rusty-schweickart-serial-number/a/6075-40085.s. Retrieved 14 April 2015. 
  22. "Apollo 11 Flown Silver Robbins Medallion Originally from the Personal Collection of Mercury Seven Astronaut Wally Schirra, Serial Number 416". Heritage Auctions (HA.com). http://historical.ha.com/itm/explorers/apollo-11-flown-silver-robbins-medallion-originally-from-the-personal-collection-of-mercury-seven-astronaut-wally-schirra-se/a/6095-40078.s. Retrieved 14 April 2015. 
  23. "Apollo 12 Flown Silver Robbins Medallion Directly from the Jim Rathmann Collection, Serial Number 1.". Heritage Auctions (HA.com). http://historical.ha.com/itm/explorers/apollo-12-flown-silver-robbins-medallion-directly-from-the-jim-rathmann-collection-serial-number-1/a/6082-40079.s. Retrieved 14 April 2015. 
  24. "Apollo 13 Flown Silver Robbins Medallion Directly from the Personal Collection of Astronaut Rusty Schweickart, Serial Number 354". Heritage Auctions (HA.com). http://historical.ha.com/itm/transportation/apollo-13-flown-silver-robbins-medallion-directly-from-the-personal-collection-of-astronaut-rusty-schweickart-serial-number/a/6075-40125.s. Retrieved 14 April 2015. 
  25. "Apollo 14 Flown Silver Robbins Medallion Directly from the Personal Collection of Astronaut Rusty Schweickart, Serial Number 192". Heritage Auctions (HA.com). http://historical.ha.com/itm/transportation/apollo-14-flown-silver-robbins-medallion-directly-from-the-personal-collection-of-astronaut-rusty-schweickart-serial-number/a/6075-40138.s. Retrieved 14 April 2015. 
  26. "Apollo 15 Flown Silver Robbins Medallion Directly from the Personal Collection of Astronaut Rusty Schweickart, Serial Number 092". Heritage Auctions (HA.com). http://historical.ha.com/itm/transportation/apollo-15-flown-silver-robbins-medallion-directly-from-the-personal-collection-of-astronaut-rusty-schweickart-serial-number/a/6075-40156.s. Retrieved 14 April 2015. 
  27. "Apollo 16 Flown Silver Robbins Medallion Directly from the Personal Collection of Mission Commander John Young, Serial Number 19.". Heritage Auctions (HA.com). http://historical.ha.com/itm/explorers/apollo-16-flown-silver-robbins-medallion-directly-from-the-personal-collection-of-mission-commander-john-young-serial-number/a/6022-41122.s. Retrieved 14 April 2015. 
  28. "Apollo-Soyuz Test Project Flown Silver Robbins Medallion Directly from the Personal Collection of Astronaut Rusty Schweickart". Heritage Auctions (HA.com). http://historical.ha.com/itm/transportation/apollo-soyuz-test-project-flown-silver-robbins-medallion-directly-from-the-personal-collection-of-astronaut-rusty-schweickart/a/6075-40179.s. Retrieved 22 April 2015. 
  29. "Robbins medallions sold at auction or identified in private or museum collections". spaceflownartifacts.com. Archived on 10 July 2015. Template:Citation error. http://www.spaceflownartifacts.com/flown_robbins_medallions.html. Retrieved 9 July 2015. 
  30. "Heritage Auctions search for "flown robbins medallion"". Heritage Auctions. Archived on 10 July 2015. Template:Citation error. http://www.ha.com/c/search-results.zx?N=0+790+231+232+232+232&Ne=230&Nty=1&Ntk=SI_Titles&Ntt=flown+robbins+medallion. Retrieved 10 July 2015. 
  31. "RR Auction search for "robbins medal"". rrauction.com. http://www.rrauction.com/past_auction_results.cfm?SearchCrit=robbins%20medal&order=LP&oper=exact&scope=titledescr&InvPage=1. Retrieved 10 July 2015. 
  32. "Heritage Auctions search for "flown robbins medallion" (sorted by price)". Heritage Auctions. http://www.ha.com/c/search-results.zx?N=0+790+231+232+232+232&Ne=230&Nty=1&Ntk=SI_Titles&Ntt=flown+robbins+medallion. Retrieved 10 July 2015. 
  33. "RR Auction search for "robbins medal" (sorted by price)". rrauction.com. http://www.rrauction.com/past_auction_results.cfm?SearchCrit=robbins%20medal&order=LP&oper=exact&scope=titledescr&InvPage=3. Retrieved 10 July 2015. 

NotesEdit

BibliographyEdit

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