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<!--image of the spacecraft/mission-->
 
<!--image of the spacecraft/mission-->
| image = [[File:Viking spacecraft.jpg|250px]]
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| image = [[Image:Viking spacecraft.jpg|250px]]
 
| image_caption = Viking Orbiter
 
| image_caption = Viking Orbiter
 
| image_alt = <!--image alt text-->
 
| image_alt = <!--image alt text-->
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<!--Launch details-->
 
<!--Launch details-->
| launch_date = {{start date|1975|09|09|18|39||TZ=Z}}<ref name="NASA-20061218" /><ref name="NASA-Viking2">{{cite web |last=Nelson |first=Jon |title=Viking 2 |url=http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/missions/viking-2/ |work=[[NASA]] |accessdate=February 2, 2014}}</ref>
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| launch_date = {{start date|1975|09|09|18|39||TZ=Z}}<ref name="NASA-Viking2">{{cite web |last=Nelson |first=Jon |title=Viking 2 |url=http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/missions/viking-2/ |work=[[NASA]] |accessdate=February 2, 2014 }}</ref><ref name="NASA-20061218" />
 
| launch_rocket = [[Titan IIIE]] with [[Centaur (rocket stage)|Centaur]] upper stage
 
| launch_rocket = [[Titan IIIE]] with [[Centaur (rocket stage)|Centaur]] upper stage
 
| launch_site = <!--Where the rocket launched from, including complex and pad; do not include the full address or country-->
 
| launch_site = <!--Where the rocket launched from, including complex and pad; do not include the full address or country-->
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|interplanetary = <!--Infobox spaceflight/IP can be called multiple times for missions with multiple targets or combined orbiter/lander missions, etc-->
 
|interplanetary = <!--Infobox spaceflight/IP can be called multiple times for missions with multiple targets or combined orbiter/lander missions, etc-->
{{Infobox spaceflight/IP
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{{Infobox spaceflight/IP
 
|type = orbiter
 
|type = orbiter
 
|object = [[Mars]]
 
|object = [[Mars]]
 
|orbits = <!--number of orbits completed at target body (if applicable and known)-->
 
|orbits = <!--number of orbits completed at target body (if applicable and known)-->
 
|component = Viking 2 Orbiter
 
|component = Viking 2 Orbiter
|arrival_date = August 7, 1976 <ref name="NASA-20061218" /><ref name="NASA-Viking2"/>
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|arrival_date = August 7, 1976 <ref name="NASA-Viking2"/><ref name="NASA-20061218" />
 
|departure_date = <!--Date of leaving orbit for orbiters, date of launch for landers which took off again-->
 
|departure_date = <!--Date of leaving orbit for orbiters, date of launch for landers which took off again-->
 
|location = <!--landing/impact site, including EOM impacts for atmospheric probes and lunar/asteroid orbiters-->
 
|location = <!--landing/impact site, including EOM impacts for atmospheric probes and lunar/asteroid orbiters-->
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|inclination =
 
|inclination =
 
|apsis = areion
 
|apsis = areion
}}
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}}
{{Infobox spaceflight/IP
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  +
{{Infobox spaceflight/IP
 
|type = lander
 
|type = lander
 
|object = [[Mars]]
 
|object = [[Mars]]
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|location = {{Coord|47.97|N|225.74|W|globe:Mars|name=Viking 2 lander}}<ref name="NASA-20061218" /><br>
 
|location = {{Coord|47.97|N|225.74|W|globe:Mars|name=Viking 2 lander}}<ref name="NASA-20061218" /><br>
 
|distance = <!--closest approach distance for flybys, distance travelled on surface for rovers, omit for others-->
 
|distance = <!--closest approach distance for flybys, distance travelled on surface for rovers, omit for others-->
}}
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}}
   
 
<!--transponder parameters-->
 
<!--transponder parameters-->
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}}
 
}}
   
The '''Viking 2''' mission was part of the American [[Viking program]] to [[Mars]], and consisted of an orbiter and a lander essentially identical to that of the [[Viking 1]] mission.<ref name="NASA-20061218">{{cite web |last=Williams |first=David R. Dr. |title=Viking Mission to Mars |url=http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/planetary/viking.html |date=December 18, 2006 |work=[[NASA]] |accessdate=February 2, 2014}}</ref> The Viking 2 lander operated on the surface for {{age in days|1976|09|03|1980|04|11}} days, or {{age in sols|1976|09|03|1980|04|11}} sols, and was turned off on April 11, 1980 when its batteries failed. The orbiter worked until July 25, 1978,<ref name="NASA-20061218" /> returning almost 16,000 images in 706 orbits around Mars.
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The '''Viking 2''' mission was part of the American [[Viking program]] to [[Mars]], and consisted of an orbiter and a lander essentially identical to that of the [[Viking 1]] mission.<ref name="NASA-20061218">{{cite web |last=Williams |first=David R. Dr. |title=Viking Mission to Mars |url=http://nssdc.gsfc.nasa.gov/planetary/viking.html |date=December 18, 2006 |work=[[NASA]] |accessdate=February 2, 2014 }}</ref> The Viking 2 lander operated on the surface for {{age in days|1976|09|03|1980|04|11}} days, or {{age in sols|1976|09|03|1980|04|11}} sols, and was turned off on April 11, 1980 when its batteries failed. The orbiter worked until July 25, 1978,<ref name="NASA-20061218" /> returning almost 16,000 images in 706 orbits around Mars.
   
 
==Mission profile==
 
==Mission profile==
{{Unreferenced section}}
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{{Unreferenced section|date=August 2010}}
 
The craft was launched on September 9, 1975. Following launch using a [[Titan IIIE|Titan]]/[[Centaur (rocket stage)|Centaur]] launch vehicle and a 333-day cruise to Mars, the Viking 2 [[Orbiter]] began returning global images of Mars prior to orbit insertion. The orbiter was inserted into a 1500 x 33,000&nbsp;km, 24.6 h [[Mars orbit]] on August 7, 1976 and trimmed to a 27.3 h site certification orbit with a [[Apsis|periapsis]] of 1499&nbsp;km and an inclination of 55.2 degrees on 9 August. Imaging of candidate sites was begun and the landing site was selected based on these pictures and the images returned by the Viking 1 Orbiter.
 
The craft was launched on September 9, 1975. Following launch using a [[Titan IIIE|Titan]]/[[Centaur (rocket stage)|Centaur]] launch vehicle and a 333-day cruise to Mars, the Viking 2 [[Orbiter]] began returning global images of Mars prior to orbit insertion. The orbiter was inserted into a 1500 x 33,000&nbsp;km, 24.6 h [[Mars orbit]] on August 7, 1976 and trimmed to a 27.3 h site certification orbit with a [[Apsis|periapsis]] of 1499&nbsp;km and an inclination of 55.2 degrees on 9 August. Imaging of candidate sites was begun and the landing site was selected based on these pictures and the images returned by the Viking 1 Orbiter.
   
The lander separated from the orbiter on September 3, 1976 at 22:37:50 UT and landed at [[Utopia Planitia]]. Normal operations called for the structure connecting the orbiter and lander (the bioshield) to be ejected after separation, but because of problems with the separation the bioshield was left attached to the orbiter. The orbit inclination was raised to 75 degrees on 30 September 1976.
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The lander separated from the orbiter on September 3, 1976 at 22:37:50 [[Universal Time|UT]] and landed at [[Utopia Planitia]]. Normal operations called for the structure connecting the orbiter and lander (the bioshield) to be ejected after separation, but because of problems with the separation the bioshield was left attached to the orbiter. The orbit inclination was raised to 75 degrees on 30 September 1976.
   
 
===Orbiter===
 
===Orbiter===
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===Lander===
 
===Lander===
[[File:Viking lander model.jpg|thumb|Model of Viking Lander]]
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[[Image:Viking lander model.jpg|thumb||Model of Viking Lander]]
 
The lander and its [[aeroshell]] separated from the orbiter on 3 September 19:39:59 UT. At the time of separation, the lander was orbiting at about 4&nbsp;km/s. After separation, rockets fired to begin lander [[deorbit]]. After a few hours, at about 300&nbsp;km attitude, the lander was reoriented for entry. The aeroshell with its ablative [[heat shield]] slowed the craft as it plunged through the atmosphere.
 
The lander and its [[aeroshell]] separated from the orbiter on 3 September 19:39:59 UT. At the time of separation, the lander was orbiting at about 4&nbsp;km/s. After separation, rockets fired to begin lander [[deorbit]]. After a few hours, at about 300&nbsp;km attitude, the lander was reoriented for entry. The aeroshell with its ablative [[heat shield]] slowed the craft as it plunged through the atmosphere.
   
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Approximately {{convert|22|kg|abbr=on}} of propellants were left at landing. Due to radar misidentification of a rock or highly reflective surface, the thrusters fired an extra time 0.4 second before landing, cracking the surface and raising dust. The lander settled down with one leg on a rock, tilted at 8.2 degrees. The cameras began taking images immediately after landing.
 
Approximately {{convert|22|kg|abbr=on}} of propellants were left at landing. Due to radar misidentification of a rock or highly reflective surface, the thrusters fired an extra time 0.4 second before landing, cracking the surface and raising dust. The lander settled down with one leg on a rock, tilted at 8.2 degrees. The cameras began taking images immediately after landing.
   
The Viking 2 lander was powered by radioisotope generators and operated on the surface until April 11, 1980, when its batteries failed.
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The Viking 2 lander was powered by radioisotope generators and operated on the surface until April 11 1980, when its batteries failed.
   
 
==Results from the ''Viking 2'' mission==
 
==Results from the ''Viking 2'' mission==
   
 
===Landing site soil analysis===
 
===Landing site soil analysis===
The soil resembled those produced from the weathering of basaltic [[lava]]s. The tested soil contained abundant [[silicon]] and iron, along with significant amounts of magnesium, aluminum, sulfur, [[calcium]], and titanium. Trace elements, [[strontium]] and [[yttrium]], were detected.
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The soil resembled those produced from the weathering of basaltic [[lava]]s. The tested soil contained abundant [[silicon]] and [[iron]], along with significant amounts of [[magnesium]], [[aluminum]], [[sulfur]], [[calcium]], and [[titanium]]. Trace elements, [[strontium]] and [[yttrium]], were detected.
   
The amount of [[potassium]] was one fifth of the average for the Earth's crust. Some chemicals in the soil contained sulfur and chlorine that were like those remaining after the evaporation of sea water. Sulfur was more concentrated in the crust on top of the soil than in the bulk soil beneath.
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The amount of [[potassium]] was one fifth of the average for the Earth's crust. Some chemicals in the soil contained sulfur and [[chlorine]] that were like those remaining after the evaporation of sea water. Sulfur was more concentrated in the crust on top of the soil than in the bulk soil beneath.
   
 
The Sulfur may be present as [[sulfate]]s of [[sodium]], magnesium, calcium, or iron. A [[sulfide]] of iron is also possible.<ref>Clark, B. et al. 1976. Inorganic Analysis of Martian Samples at the Viking Landing Sites. Science: 194. 1283–1288.</ref> The [[Spirit Rover]] and the [[Opportunity Rover]] both found sulfates on Mars.<ref>[http://marsrovers.nasa.gov/gallery/press/opportunity/20040625a.html Mars Exploration Rover Mission: Press Release Images: Opportunity<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref>
 
The Sulfur may be present as [[sulfate]]s of [[sodium]], magnesium, calcium, or iron. A [[sulfide]] of iron is also possible.<ref>Clark, B. et al. 1976. Inorganic Analysis of Martian Samples at the Viking Landing Sites. Science: 194. 1283–1288.</ref> The [[Spirit Rover]] and the [[Opportunity Rover]] both found sulfates on Mars.<ref>[http://marsrovers.nasa.gov/gallery/press/opportunity/20040625a.html Mars Exploration Rover Mission: Press Release Images: Opportunity<!-- Bot generated title -->]</ref>
   
The Opportunity Rover (landed in 2004 with advanced instruments) found [[magnesium sulfate]] and [[calcium sulfate]] at [[Meridiani Planum]].<ref>Christensen, P. et al. 2004. Mineralogy at Meridiani Planum from the Mini-TES Experiment on the Opportunity Rover. Science: 306. 1733–1739</ref> Using results from the chemical measurements, mineral models suggest that the soil could be a mixture of about 80% iron-rich clay, about 10% [[magnesium sulfate]] ([[kieserite]]?), about 5% [[carbonate]] ([[calcite]]), and about 5% [[iron oxides]] ([[hematite]], [[magnetite]], [[goethite]]?).
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The Opportunity Rover (landed in 2004 with advanced instruments) found [[magnesium sulfate]] and [[calcium sulfate]] at [[Meridiani Planum]].<ref>Christensen, P. et al. 2004. Mineralogy at Meridiani Planum from the Mini-TES Experiment on the Opportunity Rover. Science: 306. 1733–1739</ref> Using results from the chemical measurements, mineral models suggest that the soil could be a mixture of about 80% iron-rich [[clay]], about 10% [[magnesium sulfate]] ([[kieserite]]?), about 5% [[carbonate]] ([[calcite]]), and about 5% [[iron oxides]] ([[hematite]], [[magnetite]], [[goethite]]?).
   
 
These minerals are typical weathering products of mafic [[igneous rocks]].<ref>Baird, A. et al. 1976. [http://www.sciencemag.org/content/194/4271/1288.abstract Mineralogic and Petrologic Implications of Viking Geochemical Results From Mars: Interim Report.] Science: 194. 1288–1293.</ref> All samples heated in the gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GCMS) gave off water.
 
These minerals are typical weathering products of mafic [[igneous rocks]].<ref>Baird, A. et al. 1976. [http://www.sciencemag.org/content/194/4271/1288.abstract Mineralogic and Petrologic Implications of Viking Geochemical Results From Mars: Interim Report.] Science: 194. 1288–1293.</ref> All samples heated in the gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GCMS) gave off water.
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===Search for life===
 
===Search for life===
Viking carried a biology experiment whose purpose was to look for life. The Viking biology experiment weighed 15.5&nbsp;kg (34&nbsp;lb) and consisted of three subsystems: the [[Pyrolytic Release]] experiment (PR), the Labeled Release experiment (LR), and the Gas Exchange experiment (GEX). In addition, independent of the biology experiments, Viking carried a Gas Chromatograph/Mass Spectrometer (GCMS) that could measure the composition and abundance of organic compounds in the Martian soil.<ref>[http://www.msss.com/http/ps/life/life.html Life on Mars<!-- Bot generated title -->] {{wayback|url=http://www.msss.com/http/ps/life/life.html |date=20141020034248}}</ref>
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Viking carried a biology experiment whose purpose was to look for life. The Viking biology experiment weighed 15.5&nbsp;kg (34&nbsp;lb) and consisted of three subsystems: the [[Pyrolytic Release]] experiment (PR), the Labeled Release experiment (LR), and the Gas Exchange experiment (GEX). In addition, independent of the biology experiments, Viking carried a Gas Chromatograph/Mass Spectrometer (GCMS) that could measure the composition and abundance of organic compounds in the Martian soil.<ref>[http://www.msss.com/http/ps/life/life.html Life on Mars<!-- Bot generated title -->] {{wayback|url=http://www.msss.com/http/ps/life/life.html |date=20141020034248 }}</ref>
   
The results were surprising and interesting: the GCMS gave a negative result; the PR gave a positive result, the GEX gave a negative result, and the LR gave a positive result.<ref>[http://www.spacedaily.com/news/mars-life-00g.html Viking Data May Hide New Evidence For Life.] Barry E. DiGregorio, July 16, 2000.</ref> Viking scientist Patricia Straat recently stated, "Our (LR) experiment was a definite positive response for life, but a lot of people have claimed that it was a false positive for a variety of reasons."<ref>[http://dsc.discovery.com/news/2009/09/28/viking-lander-mars.html Viking 2 Likely Came Close to Finding H2O.] {{wayback|url=http://dsc.discovery.com/news/2009/09/28/viking-lander-mars.html |date=20090930025048}}</ref>
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The results were surprising and interesting: the GCMS gave a negative result; the PR gave a positive result, the GEX gave a negative result, and the LR gave a positive result.<ref>[http://www.spacedaily.com/news/mars-life-00g.html Viking Data May Hide New Evidence For Life.] Barry E. DiGregorio, July 16, 2000.</ref> Viking scientist Patricia Straat recently stated, "Our (LR) experiment was a definite positive response for life, but a lot of people have claimed that it was a false positive for a variety of reasons."<ref>[http://dsc.discovery.com/news/2009/09/28/viking-lander-mars.html Viking 2 Likely Came Close to Finding H2O.] {{wayback|url=http://dsc.discovery.com/news/2009/09/28/viking-lander-mars.html |date=20090930025048 }}</ref>
   
Most scientists now believe that the data were due to inorganic chemical reactions of the soil; however, this view may be changing after the recent discovery of near-surface ice near the Viking landing zone.{{citation needed|date=September 2015}} Some scientists still believe the results were due to living reactions. No organic chemicals were found in the soil.{{citation needed|date=September 2015}}
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Most scientists now believe that the data were due to inorganic chemical reactions of the soil; however, this view may be changing after the recent discovery of near-surface ice near the Viking landing zone.{{cn|date=September 2015}} Some scientists still believe the results were due to living reactions. No organic chemicals were found in the soil.{{cn|date=September 2015}}
   
Mars has almost no ozone layer, unlike the Earth, so UV light sterilizes the surface and produces highly reactive chemicals such as peroxides that would oxidize any organic chemicals.<ref name="Hartmann, W 2003">Hartmann, W. 2003. A Traveler's Guide to Mars. Workman Publishing. NY NY.</ref> The [[Phoenix Lander]] discovered the chemical [[perchlorate]] in the Martian soil. Perchlorate is a strong oxidant so it may have destroyed any organic matter on the surface.<ref>[http://www.planetary.org/news/2008/0806_Alien_Rumors_Quelled_as_NASA_Announces.html Alien Rumors Quelled as NASA Announces Phoenix Perchlorate Discovery.] {{wayback|url=http://www.planetary.org/news/2008/0806_Alien_Rumors_Quelled_as_NASA_Announces.html |date=20100904132551}} A.J.S. Rayl, August 6, 2008.</ref> Perchlorate is now considered widespread on Mars making it hard to detect any organic compounds on the Martian surface.<ref name="NYT-20131001">{{cite news |last=Chang |first=Kenneth |title=Hitting Pay Dirt on Mars |url=http://www.nytimes.com/2013/10/01/science/space/hitting-pay-dirt-on-mars.html |date=1 October 2013 |work=New York Times |accessdate=10 October 2013}}</ref>
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Mars has almost no ozone layer, unlike the Earth, so UV light sterilizes the surface and produces highly reactive chemicals such as peroxides that would oxidize any organic chemicals.<ref name="Hartmann, W 2003">Hartmann, W. 2003. A Traveler's Guide to Mars. Workman Publishing. NY NY.</ref> The [[Phoenix Lander]] discovered the chemical [[perchlorate]] in the Martian soil. Perchlorate is a strong oxidant so it may have destroyed any organic matter on the surface.<ref>[http://www.planetary.org/news/2008/0806_Alien_Rumors_Quelled_as_NASA_Announces.html Alien Rumors Quelled as NASA Announces Phoenix Perchlorate Discovery.] {{wayback|url=http://www.planetary.org/news/2008/0806_Alien_Rumors_Quelled_as_NASA_Announces.html |date=20100904132551 }} A.J.S. Rayl, August 6, 2008.</ref> Perchlorate is now considered widespread on Mars making it hard to detect any organic compounds on the Martian surface.<ref name="NYT-20131001">{{cite news |last=Chang |first=Kenneth |title=Hitting Pay Dirt on Mars |url=http://www.nytimes.com/2013/10/01/science/space/hitting-pay-dirt-on-mars.html |date=1 October 2013 |work=[[New York Times]] |accessdate=10 October 2013 }}</ref>
   
 
===''Viking 2'' lander image gallery===
 
===''Viking 2'' lander image gallery===
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{{Wide image|22i103-104-105-109 FROST.jpg|1500px|<center>Viking Lander 2 Camera 2 FROST (Low Resolution Color) Sol 1028, 1030 and 1050 between 11:34 and 12:40.</center>}}
 
{{Wide image|22i103-104-105-109 FROST.jpg|1500px|<center>Viking Lander 2 Camera 2 FROST (Low Resolution Color) Sol 1028, 1030 and 1050 between 11:34 and 12:40.</center>}}
 
<gallery class="center">
 
<gallery class="center">
File:PSP 001501 2280 RED VL-2 lander.png|Viking 2 lander taken by [[Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter]] (December 2006).
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Image:PSP 001501 2280 RED VL-2 lander.png|Viking 2 lander taken by [[Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter]] (December 2006).
File:First Color Image of the Viking Lander 2 Site.jpg|First color image (Viking Lander 2 Camera 2 sol {{age in sols|1976|09|03|1976|09|05}}, September 5, 1976) 14:36
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Image:First Color Image of the Viking Lander 2 Site.jpg|First color image (Viking Lander 2 Camera 2 sol {{age in sols|1976|09|03|1976|09|05}}, September 5, 1976) 14:36
File:22g144 netoyee.jpg|thumb|Viking Lander 2 Camera 2 22G144 (Low Resolution Color) Sol 552 19:16
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Image:22g144 netoyee.jpg|thumb|Viking Lander 2 Camera 2 22G144 (Low Resolution Color) Sol 552 19:16
File:Mars Viking 22e169.png|Frost on Mars.
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Image:Mars Viking 22e169.png|Frost on Mars.
File:22i067 FROST.png|thumb|Viking Lander 2 Camera 2 FROST (Low Resolution Color) Sol 955 12:13
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Image:22i067 FROST.png|thumb|Viking Lander 2 Camera 2 FROST (Low Resolution Color) Sol 955 12:13
File:Mars Viking 21i093.png|Frost at the landing site. (false colour)
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Image:Mars Viking 21i093.png|Frost at the landing site. (false colour)
File:21i090 21i093 21d224-225-226 LOW RESOLUTION COLOR.jpg|thumb|Viking Lander 2 Camera 1 FROST (Low Resolution Color) Sol 960 14:14
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Image:21i090 21i093 21d224-225-226 LOW RESOLUTION COLOR.jpg|thumb|Viking Lander 2 Camera 1 FROST (Low Resolution Color) Sol 960 14:14
File:21i091 HIGH RESOLUTION COLOR.jpg|thumb|Viking Lander 2 Camera 1 FROST HIGH RESOLUTION (With Low Resolution Color) Sol 959 14:39
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Image:21i091 HIGH RESOLUTION COLOR.jpg|thumb|Viking Lander 2 Camera 1 FROST HIGH RESOLUTION (With Low Resolution Color) Sol 959 14:39
File:SKY-AT-SUNRISE-(22b023).jpg|thumb|Viking Lander 2 Camera 2 SKY AT SUNRISE (Low Resolution Color) Sol 34 04:22
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Image:SKY-AT-SUNRISE-(22b023).jpg|thumb|Viking Lander 2 Camera 2 SKY AT SUNRISE (Low Resolution Color) Sol 34 04:22
File:SKY-AT-SUNRISE(22h093).jpg|thumb|Viking Lander 2 Camera 2 SKY AT SUNRISE (Low Resolution Color) Sol 631 04:00
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Image:SKY-AT-SUNRISE(22h093).jpg|thumb|Viking Lander 2 Camera 2 SKY AT SUNRISE (Low Resolution Color) Sol 631 04:00
 
</gallery>
 
</gallery>
   
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<gallery>
 
<gallery>
File:Streamlined_Islands_in_Maja_Valles.jpg|Streamlined islands seen by Viking showed that large floods occurred on Mars. Image is located in [[Lunae Palus quadrangle]].
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Image:Streamlined_Islands_in_Maja_Valles.jpg|Streamlined islands seen by Viking showed that large floods occurred on Mars. Image is located in [[Lunae Palus quadrangle]].
File:Viking Teardrop Islands.jpg|Tear-drop shaped islands caused by flood waters from [[Maja Valles]], as seen by Viking Orbiter. Image is located in [[Oxia Palus quadrangle]]. The islands are formed in the ejecta of [[Lod (crater)|Lod]], [[Bok (Martian crater)|Bok]], and [[Gold (crater)|Gold]] craters.
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Image:Viking Teardrop Islands.jpg|Tear-drop shaped islands caused by flood waters from [[Maja Valles]], as seen by Viking Orbiter. Image is located in [[Oxia Palus quadrangle]]. The islands are formed in the ejecta of [[Lod (crater)|Lod]], [[Bok (Martian crater)|Bok]], and [[Gold (crater)|Gold]] craters.
File:Chryse Planitia Scour Patterns.jpg|Scour patterns, located in [[Lunae Palus quadrangle]], were produced by flowing water from Maja Valles, which lies just to the left of this mosaic. Detail of flow around [[Dromore (crater)|Dromore]] crater is shown on the next image.
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Image:Chryse Planitia Scour Patterns.jpg|Scour patterns, located in [[Lunae Palus quadrangle]], were produced by flowing water from Maja Valles, which lies just to the left of this mosaic. Detail of flow around [[Dromore (crater)|Dromore]] crater is shown on the next image.
File:Detail of Maja Valles Flow.jpg|Great amounts of water were required to carry out the erosion shown in this Viking image. Image is located in [[Lunae Palus quadrangle]]. The erosion shaped the ejecta around [[Dromore (crater)|Dromore]].
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Image:Detail of Maja Valles Flow.jpg|Great amounts of water were required to carry out the erosion shown in this Viking image. Image is located in [[Lunae Palus quadrangle]]. The erosion shaped the ejecta around [[Dromore (crater)|Dromore]].
File:Vedra,_Maumee,_and_Maja_valles.jpg|Waters from [[Vedra Valles]], [[Maumee Valles]], and Maja Valles flowed from Lunae Planum on the left, to [[Chryse Planitia]] on the right. Image is located in [[Lunae Palus quadrangle]] and was taken by Viking Orbiter.
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Image:Vedra,_Maumee,_and_Maja_valles.jpg|Waters from [[Vedra Valles]], [[Maumee Valles]], and Maja Valles flowed from Lunae Planum on the left, to [[Chryse Planitia]] on the right. Image is located in [[Lunae Palus quadrangle]] and was taken by Viking Orbiter.
File:Kasei Valles topolabled.JPG|Area around northern Kasei Valles, showing relationships among [[Kasei Valles]], [[Bahram Vallis]], [[Vedra Valles]], [[Maumee Valles]], and [[Maja Valles]]. Map location is in [[Lunae Palus quadrangle]] and includes parts of Lunae Planum and [[Chryse Planitia]].
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Image:Kasei Valles topolabled.JPG|Area around northern Kasei Valles, showing relationships among [[Kasei Valles]], [[Bahram Vallis]], [[Vedra Valles]], [[Maumee Valles]], and [[Maja Valles]]. Map location is in [[Lunae Palus quadrangle]] and includes parts of Lunae Planum and [[Chryse Planitia]].
File:Flow from Arandas Crater.jpg|The ejecta from [[Arandas (crater)|Arandas]] crater acts like mud. It moves around small craters (indicated by arrows), instead of just falling down on them. Craters like this suggest that large amounts of frozen water were melted when the impact crater was produced. Image is located in [[Mare Acidalium quadrangle]] and was taken by Viking Orbiter.
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Image:Flow from Arandas Crater.jpg|The ejecta from [[Arandas (crater)|Arandas]] crater acts like mud. It moves around small craters (indicated by arrows), instead of just falling down on them. Craters like this suggest that large amounts of frozen water were melted when the impact crater was produced. Image is located in [[Mare Acidalium quadrangle]] and was taken by Viking Orbiter.
File:Alba Patera Channels.jpg|This view of the flank of [[Alba Patera]] shows several channels/troughs. Some channels are associated with lava flows; others are probably caused by running water. A large trough or graben turns into a line of collapse pits. Image is located in [[Arcadia quadrangle]] and was taken by Viking Orbiter.
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Image:Alba Patera Channels.jpg|This view of the flank of [[Alba Patera]] shows several channels/troughs. Some channels are associated with lava flows; others are probably caused by running water. A large trough or graben turns into a line of collapse pits. Image is located in [[Arcadia quadrangle]] and was taken by Viking Orbiter.
File:Branched Channels from Viking.jpg|Branched channels in [[Thaumasia quadrangle]], as seen by Viking Orbiter. Networks of channels like this are strong evidence for rain on Mars in the past.
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Image:Branched Channels from Viking.jpg|Branched channels in [[Thaumasia quadrangle]], as seen by Viking Orbiter. Networks of channels like this are strong evidence for rain on Mars in the past.
File:Dissected Channels, as seen by Viking.jpg|The branched channels seen by Viking from orbit strongly suggested that it rained on Mars in the past. Image is located in [[Margaritifer Sinus quadrangle]].
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Image:Dissected Channels, as seen by Viking.jpg|The branched channels seen by Viking from orbit strongly suggested that it rained on Mars in the past. Image is located in [[Margaritifer Sinus quadrangle]].
File:Ravi Vallis.jpg|Ravi Vallis, as seen by Viking Orbiter. [[Ravi Vallis]] was probably formed when catastrophic floods came out of the ground to the right (chaotic terrain). Image located in [[Margaritifer Sinus quadrangle]].
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Image:Ravi Vallis.jpg|Ravi Vallis, as seen by Viking Orbiter. [[Ravi Vallis]] was probably formed when catastrophic floods came out of the ground to the right (chaotic terrain). Image located in [[Margaritifer Sinus quadrangle]].
 
File:Deimos-viking1.jpg|[[Deimos (moon)|Deimos]], photo taken in 1977.
 
File:Deimos-viking1.jpg|[[Deimos (moon)|Deimos]], photo taken in 1977.
 
</gallery>
 
</gallery>
   
==Lander location==
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== Lander location ==
{{Clear}}
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{{-}}
 
{{Mars map indicating landers}}
 
{{Mars map indicating landers}}
{{Clear}}
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{{-}}
   
 
==See also==
 
==See also==
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{{NASA planetary exploration programs}}
 
{{NASA planetary exploration programs}}
 
{{Mars spacecraft}}
 
{{Mars spacecraft}}
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{{Mars}}
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{{Orbital launches in 1975}}
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{{Wikipedia|Viking 2}}
 
{{Wikipedia|Viking 2}}
   
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